Antifungal Activity of Kebar Grass Leaf Extracts on the Growth of Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus in Food Model Media
Keywords:Antifungal activity, aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus, Biophytum petersianum Klotzsch, food model media
Some fungal species are toxigenic, for example Aspergillus flavus which can produce aflatoxin. Various methods have been conducted to reduce aflatoxin contamination in foods, among others using antimicrobial compounds derived from natural plant extract. Kebar grass (Biophytum petersianum Klotszch) is one of herbs that has potency as antimicrobe.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of three types of model media i.e. carbohydrate- enriched media, fat-enriched media, and protein- enriched media containing kebar grass extract on the growth of aflatoxigenic A. flavus. Kebar grass extract at concentrations of 5, 10, and 20 mg mL-1 was extracted using various solvents, i.e. hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, hexane-ethyl acetate, hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol, and aquadest extracts was tested on the growth of A. flavus.
The result showed that kebar grass extract of hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol at concentration of 20 mg ml-1 in carbohydrate- enriched medium, fat-enriched medium, and protein- enriched medium caused higher growth inhibition of A. flavus than other extracts, i.e. 96.2, 100, and 96.1%, respectevely. The other extracts had growth inhibition less than 90%. The results obtained in the present study suggest that kebar grass extract
J.I. Pitt and A.D. Hocking. Fungi and Food Spoilage. New York: Springer, 2009.
C. Proestos, N. Chorianopoulos, G.J. Nychas and M. Komaitis. RP-HPLC analysis of the phenolic compounds of plant extracts : Investigation of their antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activity. J. of Agri. and Food Chem., Vol. 53, 1190
M. Trigui, A.B. Hsouna, S. Tounsi and S. Jaoua. Chemical composition and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Tunisian Thymelaea hirsuta with special reference to its mode of action. Indust. Crops and Prod., Vol. 41, 150-157, 2013.
B. Santoso, A. Kilmaskossu and P. Sambodo. Effects of saponin from Biophytum petersianum Klotzsch on ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen utilization in goats. Animal Feed Sci. and Tech., Vol. 137, 58
M. Inngjerdingen, K.T. Inngjerdingen, T.R. Patel, S. Allen, X. Chen, B. Rolstad, G.A. Morris, S.E. Harding, T.E. Michaelsen, D. Diallo and B.S. Paulsen. Pectic polysaccharides from Biophytum petersianum Klotzsch, and their activation of macrophages and dendritic cells. Glycobiol., Vol. 12, 1074
S. Karamang. Studi morfologi, agrobiofisik dan produksi saponin Rumput Kebar (Biophytum petersianum Klotzsch) asal Papua [tesis].Bogor: Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor, 2010.
D. Natarajan, M.S. Shivakumar and R. Srinivasan. Antibacterial activity of leaf extracts of Biophytum sensitivum (L.) DC. J. Pharm. Sci. and Res., Vol. 11, 717-720, 2010.
Y. Deng, Y. Yu, H. Luo, M. Zhang, X. Qin and L. Li. Antimicrobial activity of extract and two alkaloids from traditional Chinese medicinal plant Stephania dielsiana. Food Chem. Vol. 124, 1556
S.H. Lee, K.S. Chang, M.S. Su, Y.S. Huang and H.D. Jang. Effects of some Chinese medicinal plant extracts on five different fungi. Food Control, Vol. 18, 547
J.B. Harborne. Metode Fitokimia : Penuntun cara modern menganalisis tumbuhan. Terbitan kedua. Bandung: Penerbit ITB, 2006.
C.N. Shih and E.H. Marth. Some cultural conditions that control biosynthesis of lipid and aflatoxin by Aspergillus parasiticus. App Microbiol., Vol. 27, 452-456, 1974.
A. Riba, N. Boura, S. Mokrane, F. Mathieu, A. Lebrihi and N. Sabaou. Aspergillus section Flavi and aflatoxins in Algerian wheat and derived products. Food and Chem. Toxicol., Vol. 48, 2772-2777, 2010.
J.E. Mellon and P.J. Cotty. Effects of oilseed storage proteins on aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus. JAOCS, Vol. 75, 1085-1089, 1998.
G.S. Joseph, G.K. Jayaprakasha, A.T. Selvi, B.S. Jena and K.K. Sakariah. Antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant activities of Garcinia extracts. Int. J. of Microbiol.,Vol. 101, 153-160, 2005.
V.G. de Billerbeck, C.G. Roques, J.M. Bessi
J. Tian, X. Ban, H. Zeng, J. He, B. Huang and Y. Wang. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil from Cicuta virosa L. var. latisecta Celak. Int. J. of Food Microbiol., Vol. 145, 464
D.E. Okwu and M.E. Okwu. Chemical composition of Spondias mombin Linn plant parts. J. Sustain Agric. Environ., Vol. 6, 140-147, 2004.
H. Jaberian, K. Piri and J. Nazari. Phytochemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of some medicinal plants. Food Chem., Vol. 136, 237
M.B. Sghaier, W. Bhouria, I. Bouhlela, I. Skandrania, J. Boubakera, L. Chekir-Ghediraa and K. Ghediraa. Inhibitory effect of Teucrium ramosissimum extracts on aflatoxin B 1, benzo(a)pyrene, 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine and sodium azide induced mutagenicity : Corelation with antioxidant activity. South African J. of Botany, Vol. 77, 73 0- 740, 2011.
E.O. Sousa, J.B.T. Rocha, L.M. Barros, A.R.C. Barros and J.G.M. Costa. Phytochemical characterization and in vitro antioxidant properties of Lantana camara L. and Lantana montevidensis Briq. Indust. Crops and Prod., Vol. 43, 517
P.J. Houghton, A.Y. Mensah, N. Iessa and L.Y. Hong. Terpenoids in Buddleja: relevance to chemosystematics, chemical ecology and biological activity. Phytochem., Vol. 64, 385
S. Sanni, P.A. Onyeyili and F.S. Sanni. Phytochemical analysis, elemental determination and some in vitro antibacterial activity of Ocimum basilicum L. leaf extracts. Res. J. of Phyto., Vol. 2, 77-83, 2008.
G. Brusotti, S. Tosi, A. Tava, S. Picco, A.M. Grisoli, P.I. Cesari and G. Caccialanza. Antimicrobial and phytochemical properties of stem bark extracts from Piptadeniastrum africanum (Hook f.) Brenan. Indust. Crops and Products, Vol.43, 612
E. Pinto, L. Vale-Silva, C. Cavaleiro and L. Salguerro. Antifungal activity of the clove essential oil from Syzygium aromaticum on Candida, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species. J. Med. Microbiol., Vol. 58, 1454-1462, 2009.
How to Cite
Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the following terms.