International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) 2023-05-11T08:06:25+00:00 Prof. Mohamad L. A. Anabtawi Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;">The International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) is <strong>multidisciplinary peer reviewed Journal </strong><strong>intended to publish original research papers, and review articles in the following fields (but not limited to):</strong> anthropology, archaeology, communication, criminology, education, government, linguistics, international relations, political science, sociology, Earth science, Ecology, Oceanography, Meteorology, Life science, Human biology, Decision theory, Logic, Mathematics, Statistics, Systems theory, Theoretical computer science, Applied physics, Computer science, all Fields of engineering, Accounting, , Education, Economics, Medical Technology, Biology, Medicine, Management, History, Mineralogy, Civil Engineering, Marine Technology, Commerce, Chemical Engineering, Animal Sciences, Petroleum &amp; Gas, Energy Resources, Agriculture, Medical Sciences, Machine Learning, Machinery, computer Science, Chemistry, Neural Networks, Physics, Social Science, Geology, Transportation, Waste Management, Control Engineering, Applied Mathematics, Oceanography, Biomedical Materials, Construction, Metallurgy, Neural Computing, Industrial Arts, IT, Astronology, Fire &amp; Fire Prevention, Robotics Marine Sciences, Solid State Technology, Business Administration, Food &amp;Food Industry, Atmospheric Sciences, Artificial Intelligence, Textile Industry &amp; Fabrics, Education science, Physiology, Nano Science, Microbiology, Psychology, Statistics, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Genetics, Botany, Veterinary Sciences, Biotechnology, Biochemistry, Zoology, Oncology, Accounting, Entomology, Parasitology, Evolution, human behavior, Biophysics, Fisheries, Pharmacology, Geography, Cell Biology, Genomics, Plant Biology, Law, Religious Studies, Endocrinology, Dentistry, Infectious Diseases, Toxicology, Immunology, Teacher education, and Neuroscience. </p> <p style="text-align: justify;">This International journal usually will provide the Editor's decision based on the peer review results <strong>within 4 weeks (28 days)</strong> from the paper submission date.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The journal accepts scientific papers for publication after passing the journal's double peer review process. For detailed information about the journal kindly check <a title="About the Journal" href="">About the Journal</a> page. </p> <p> </p> Contribution to the Taking into Account of Environmental Factors of Vulnerability of Reinforced Concrete Buildings in the City of Douala-Cameroon 2023-05-11T08:06:25+00:00 Langola Olivier Abanda André Lontsi Frédéric Kom Charles <p>The environment of the city of Douala (humid, porous, sandy-clay soil), plays a determining role on the vulnerability of reinforced concrete constructions, by effects of corrosion of degradations, and destructions of the structures (buildings). Relative Y, the method tree of the causes and the tests pH-metric, granulometric and permeameters , allowed us to seek, to check and to analyze certain environmental factors impacting on the constructions, weakening the concrete and pari cochet , the resistance and the durability of the buildings. To this end, the pH tests of groundwater, springs and industrial discharges, containing chloride ions (Cl-), sulphates and carbon dioxides from heavy rainfall and flooding, attack by an electrochemical mechanism the reinforcement and framework of the constructions. Thus, the results obtained from the tests, demonstrate how the dangerous acids present in water, penetrate into the reinforced concrete to destroy it. The resulting chemical reaction of hydration absorbs the water and swells the concrete to reach the steel, weakening it and destroying the protective film (passivation). The action of water on concrete is declined by absorption, hydrolysis, dissolution, solvation and crystallization. Also, the corrosion rate of materials remaining strongly inherent to the high humidity and PH level ? 6, directly influencing the electrical resistivity conductivity and diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide in concrete.</p> <p>As such, the relative humidity (RH) or high water content in concrete and the environment of the site receiving the construction project, produces permeability decreasing effects in the presence of oxygen. These effects contribute to stimulate and increase the corrosion process. Because, water, soil and industrial pollutants, affect the works Given, that it is demonstrated that a quasi-permanent moisture content ? 55% in a porous material such as concrete, leads to the loss of 20 to 30% of its cohesion. Hence, the various forms of degradation and loss of loads suffered by the constructions. To this end, the binder content, mineral additives and the water/cement ratio (W/C), are to be considered for the evaluation, resistance and durability of the constructions. Also, most of the methods used to determine the permeability of porous materials are based on Darcy's law. This is because, in its basic form, the fluid flows through a disc-shaped sample under a pressure gradient. Consequently, in addition to the requirement of carrying out geotechnical studies of materials and soil in accordance with the standards of construction and urban planning, pH metric tests are necessary for the effective consideration of environmental factors to achieve the resilience and durability of reinforced concrete structures. It will be in particular: ( i ) to identify and analyze the impacts of water and soil on reinforced concrete constructions; (ii) to verify and analyze the compliance of the said constructions with the geotechnical and urban planning standards (realization of geotechnical studies and the use of adequate quality materials and qualified manpower); (iii) to contribute to the considerable reduction of the vulnerability of the works to the attacks of the sulphates , for a better safety and durability of the constructions.</p> 2023-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) On Responsibility in University Teaching: Aspects Contributing to the Enhancement of Teaching Quality Provided at Universities 2023-05-04T13:44:42+00:00 Jelena Vukićević-Nešić Nataša Lukić <p>This paper will highlight the intrinsic link between university educators’ general responsibilities and the three domains of responsibilities. The text initially presents perspectives regarding responsibility and the act of teaching. It is then followed by an analysis of the concept of responsibility in teaching, which is examined across three distinct domains: the domain of encouraging students’ curiosity, the domain of keeping abreast of the prospective career requirements for students, and the domain of language usage. In brief, it is crucial to enhance teachers' sense of responsibility toward their students, as it can ultimately result in enhanced academic achievement and personal development for students.</p> 2023-05-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) The Internationalization of Higher Education in China: A Case Study of A University 2023-05-03T23:14:28+00:00 Meng Lin WANG Tong Wooi CHOW (Jerry) <p>This study focuses on analyzing the internationalization of higher education in a specific university in China during the 13th Five Year Plan Period (2016-2020). The purpose of the research is to collect, classify, and sort literature related to the topic and discuss the development context and implementation status of higher education internationalization. The study uses document analysis and case interviews to conduct a case study of the university. In the document analysis, university affairs materials, subordinate school data statistics, and other relevant documents are examined to understand the current practice of education internationalization of the university. The study then proposes a development path for the university's internationalization, which includes talent training, faculty members, scientific research, and people-to-people exchange. Overall, the study provides insights into the internationalization of higher education in a specific university in China and presents a potential pathway for the university to enhance its global engagement.</p> 2023-05-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) Internationalization of Higher Education in Shaanxi Province, China: Status Quo and Development Trends 2023-05-03T23:11:01+00:00 Meng Lin WANG Tong Wooi CHOW (Jerry) <p>This study focuses on the status quo of internationalization of higher education in China, and explores the current situation and development of higher education internationalization in Shaanxi Province. As one of the important cradles of Chinese civilization, Shaanxi, as the starting point of the ancient Silk Road, has embraced a new opportunity for international exchanges and cooperation in the field of education. The level of internationalization is increasing, universities in Shaanxi actively build platforms for international exchanges and cooperation, open various communication channels, and create opportunities for cooperation. However, the platform and system for communication, as well as ideas, policies and measures, need to be further improved. Based on the research content of higher education internationalization, this essay clarifies the specific forms, summarizes the development trends, and puts forward targeted countermeasures according to the actual situation.</p> 2023-05-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) Detection and Diagnosis of Breast Cancer Using an Ensemble Statistical Learning Method 2023-04-22T09:08:57+00:00 Alio Boubacar Goga Chaibou Kadri Ibrahim Sidi Zakari Harouna Naroua <p>Breast cancer is a malignant tumor that originates in the cells of the breast. It is the second leading cause of women’s death, after lung cancer. Moreover, the availability of medical data facilitates the development of related Artificial Intelligence Systems (AIS)<strong>.</strong> The diagnosis (or classification) of breast cancer is a delicate task, which requires efficient and robust classifiers. However, classical classification methods (in which a single basic classifier ( estimator )) are generally confronted with the “bias-variance” dilemma. This, very often, affects seriously their efficiency and robustness. In this article, to mitigate this problem, we propose a new learning model called Triple-Stacking. This technique is composed of three (3) methods of statistical learning (Logistic Regression, Voting and Stacking) and a meta-learner (Decision Stump). The proposed model outperformed the existing ones on two different databases: Breast Cancer Wisconsin Original Data Set and Breast Cancer Wisconsin Diagnostic Data Set, with accuracies of 99.57% and 99.64%, respectively.</p> 2023-05-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR)