International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) <p style="text-align: justify;">The International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) is <strong>multidisciplinary peer reviewed Journal </strong><strong>intended to publish original research papers, and review articles in the following fields (but not limited to):</strong> anthropology, archaeology, communication, criminology, education, government, linguistics, international relations, political science, sociology, Earth science, Ecology, Oceanography, Meteorology, Life science, Human biology, Decision theory, Logic, Mathematics, Statistics, Systems theory, Theoretical computer science, Applied physics, Computer science, all Fields of engineering, Accounting, , Education, Economics, Medical Technology, Biology, Medicine, Management, History, Mineralogy, Civil Engineering, Marine Technology, Commerce, Chemical Engineering, Animal Sciences, Petroleum &amp; Gas, Energy Resources, Agriculture, Medical Sciences, Machine Learning, Machinery, computer Science, Chemistry, Neural Networks, Physics, Social Science, Geology, Transportation, Waste Management, Control Engineering, Applied Mathematics, Oceanography, Biomedical Materials, Construction, Metallurgy, Neural Computing, Industrial Arts, IT, Astronology, Fire &amp; Fire Prevention, Robotics Marine Sciences, Solid State Technology, Business Administration, Food &amp;Food Industry, Atmospheric Sciences, Artificial Intelligence, Textile Industry &amp; Fabrics, Education science, Physiology, Nano Science, Microbiology, Psychology, Statistics, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Genetics, Botany, Veterinary Sciences, Biotechnology, Biochemistry, Zoology, Oncology, Accounting, Entomology, Parasitology, Evolution, human behavior, Biophysics, Fisheries, Pharmacology, Geography, Cell Biology, Genomics, Plant Biology, Law, Religious Studies, Endocrinology, Dentistry, Infectious Diseases, Toxicology, Immunology, Teacher education, and Neuroscience. </p> <p style="text-align: justify;">This International journal usually will provide the Editor's decision based on the peer review results <strong>within 4 weeks (28 days)</strong> from the paper submission date.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The journal accepts scientific papers for publication after passing the journal's double peer review process. For detailed information about the journal kindly check <a title="About the Journal" href="">About the Journal</a> page. </p> <p> </p> Mohammad Nassar for Researches (MNFR) en-US International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) 2307-4531 <p style="text-align: justify;">Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the <a title="Copyright Notice" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">following terms</a>.&nbsp;</p> An Effective Research Methodology for Studying Film Tourism in Iran <p>One out of five destination tourists have been attracted by a film [8]. This means tourism research needs to experience more research at this remarkable growth area in future. To produce scientific research in this research area, it is essential to develop skills in the specific research area or method. It is not only need to understand tourism research method, but also, we need to find and merge research method in the field of media’s research area. The goal of any researcher is to find a solution for a gap with sufficient knowledge of understanding. Research design and methods are used for data collection. First part of this paper is to highlights what is research and research methodology. Second part focuses about qualitative and quantitative methods and approaches on data collection methods in this area. In fact, this article summarizes basic steps and methodological prerequisites and principles for the research area of film tourism as the research guide throughout the research period for research areas including cultural studies, tourism, and media.</p> Hassan Salehi Adam Lam Ashley Jones Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) 2024-02-05 2024-02-05 72 1 Survival of the Fittest in Canadian Gothic Literature between: Ghetto and Garrison Mentality <p> </p> <p> </p> <p>This paper offers a study of some selected Asian-Canadian literary works that have capitalized, in Graham Huggan’s terms, “on their perceived marginality while helping turn marginality itself into a valuable intellectual commodity” [1:viii]. The study of contemporary Canadian literature has been marked by the emergence of various ethno-racial writers such as Hiromi Goto, Joy Kogawa and Gurjinder Basran. The focus of this study will be on three gothic narratives notably, Basran’s <em>Everything Was Good-Bye </em>(2010), Goto’s <em>Chorus of Mushrooms</em> (1994) and Kogawa’s <em>Obasan </em>(1981). The ethnic women writers selected, namely, Kogawa, Goto and Basran write their gothic novels based on their traumatic memories as dislocated Asian-Canadian minorities and their gloomy present as well. Such ethnic writers find themselves lost between various identities and this is what they seek to reflect through their female characters’ internal exile and their efforts to determine which identity they should have embraced in order to be accepted as Asian-Canadians with their in-between identities. This paper seeks to provide a critical analysis of the so called ‘The Canadian Theme of Survival’, or let us call it the survival of the fittest, and the paradoxical notion of ‘garrison mentality’ as represented in such Canadian gothic literature.</p> <p> </p> Sawssen Ahmadi Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) 2024-02-10 2024-02-10 72 1 104 121 The Kaleidoscope of Thucydides: An Analysis of Thucydides as the First Social Scientist through His History of the Peloponnesian War <p>In this paper, I reevaluate the portrayal of Thucydides as the first social scientist in the context of international relations, through his work on the monumental <em>History of the Peloponnesian War</em>. I challenge the traditional interpretation of Thucydides' primary goal, questioning the one-sided analysis that limits him to identifying war causes between Athens and Sparta. I also delve into Thucydides' broader objectives, emphasizing the dangers of simplistic labeling and the need for a diverse understanding of his work. Finally, I argue for a critical, open-minded approach to his history, highlighting the potential for multiple interpretations and the importance of considering the context of international relations during Thucydides' time. This approach helps in understanding the <em>History of the Peloponnesian War</em> as more than just a scientific analysis of war, but as a rich text offering various insights into human nature, politics, and society.</p> Emi Hennessy Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) 2024-01-27 2024-01-27 72 1 93 103 Performance Enhancement Using NOMA-MIMO for 5G Networks <p>The integration of MIMO and NOMA technologies addresses key challenges in 5G and beyond, such as connectivity, latency, and dependability. However, resolving these issues, especially in MIMO-enabled 5G networks, required additional research. This involved optimizing parameters like bit error rate, downlink spectrum efficiency, average capacity rate, and uplink transmission outage probability. The model employed Quadrature Phase Shift Keying modulation on selected frequency channels, accommodating diverse user characteristics. Evaluation showed that MIMO-NOMA significantly improved bit error rate and transmitting power for the best user in download transmission. For uplink transmission, there was an increase in the average capacity rate and a decrease in outage probability for the best user. Closed-form formulas for various parameters in both downlink and uplink NOMA, with and without MIMO, were derived. Overall, adopting MIMO-NOMA led to a remarkable performance improvement for all users, even in challenging conditions like interference or fading channels.</p> Shuaib Ibrahim Adam Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) 2023-01-08 2023-01-08 72 1 1 42 The Determination and Comparative Study of Basic Hormonal Assessment in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Women Undergoing Assisted Reproduction Treatment in Southern Part of Nigeria <p>Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogenous disorder frequently diagnosed in women attending fertility clinics in Nigeria. it is characterized by anovulation, hyper androgenism and polycystic ovary, several factors have been associated with the pathophysiology of this disorder.A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in four selected fertility clinics in South-South part of Nigeria. The purposive sampling technique was used to recruit participants. A total of 206 women were recruited in this study, 101 (49.1%) women fulfilled the Rotterdam criteria for the diagnosis of PCOS, while 105 women (50.9%) without PCOS were included as control. Biochemical hyper-androgenism as described by the Rotterdam criteria was observed in 69(68%) of women with PCOS, Elevated Anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) 87(86%) and elevated Luteinizing hormone (LH) 76(75%) were observed in women with PCOS.The aim of the study was to Determine and Compare levels of Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Anti-mullerian Hormone (AMH) Testosterone in the follicular fluid of women with PCOS undergoing Assisted Reproduction Treatment.</p> Ngozi O. Ibadin Rachael O Okojie Kennedy O Ibadin Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) 2023-01-13 2023-01-13 72 1 53 61