International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) Multidisciplinary reputable journal: Peer reviewed, widely Indexed with Impact Factor, fast paper publication, and no deadline for paper submission. International Scientific Research and Researchers Association (ISRRA) en-US International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) 2307-4531 <p style="text-align: justify;">Authors who submit papers&nbsp;with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol start="1"> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">By submitting the processing fee, it is understood that the author has agreed to our terms and conditions which may change from time to time without any notice.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">It should be clear for authors that the Editor In Chief is responsible for the final decision about the submitted papers; have the right to accept\reject any paper. &nbsp;The Editor In Chief will choose any option from the following to review the submitted papers:A. send the paper to two reviewers, if the results were negative by one reviewer and positive by the other one; then the editor may send the paper for third reviewer or he take immediately the final decision by accepting\rejecting the paper. 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C. the Editor In Chief himself evaluates the paper.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Author will take the responsibility what so ever if any copyright infringement or any other violation of any law is done by publishing the research work by the author</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Before publishing, author must check whether this journal is accepted by his employer, or any authority he intends to submit his research work. we will not be responsible in this matter.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">If at any time, due to any legal reason, if the journal stops accepting manuscripts or could not publish already accepted manuscripts, we will have the right to cancel all or any one of the manuscripts without any compensation or returning back any kind of processing cost.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">The cost covered in the publication fees is only for online publication of a single manuscript.</li> </ol> Instructional Technology Implementation in Haramaya University Community School Grade 11-12 in Focus: Challenges and Opportunities <p>This study was intentional to engross in the Implementation of Instructional Technology in Haramaya University Community Model School Grade 11-12. It was employed mixed research design, and approach. The data was collected from 30 teachers and 29 students selected by using availability sampling and random sampling&nbsp; techniques particular lottery method and data collected through questionnaires, interview, and observation. To analysis data SPSS Version 20 was used and frequency and percentage were used. The study revealed that&nbsp; practices of instructional technology is low, in line with opportunity on the implementation of instructional&nbsp; technology in the school there is same availability of instructional technology like computer, laboratory equipment ,map, chart, model ,poster, glob, nevertheless, in line with this the implementation of instructional technology is very&nbsp; low .The challenges of instructional technology implementation is facing lack of awareness about the importance of&nbsp; instructional technology; lack of motivation from both teacher and students; lack of technician or human resources;&nbsp; lack of attention from administrative of the school; lack of team spirit from teacher-to-teachers ,school-to-student&nbsp; parents, unproper uses of resources; lack of time from teachers; lacks of enough resources; lack of commitment to implement from the top to down leader ,and lack flow up.</p> <p>&nbsp;In line with techniques to minimize those challenges the&nbsp; results showed as it is batter if giving training and awareness creation on instructional about the use and&nbsp; impotence instructional technology for both teachers and students in quality education; motivating and rewarding&nbsp; teachers based on their performance in line with instructional technology activates and process of its&nbsp; implementation; attention to be given to the instructional technology planning, implementation, evaluation,&nbsp; feedback, and improvement of each teacher in the school by school leader, unit leader, department head, and&nbsp; teachers them self to develop their capacity with this subject matter; creating team work or coordination among&nbsp; school teachers, department, streams to share their experiences ; flow up the scientific producers of instructional&nbsp; technology practices evaluation stages in which it involves planning, implementation, evaluation, feedback, and&nbsp; taking improvement on the weakness side; allocating enough resources for teaching and learning as well as giving&nbsp; orientation how to use those materials in the school are forwarded based the results of the study. Thus it is recommended that the implementation and practices of instructional technology in the school is need leader attention in addressing determinants factors that motivate and encourage the commitment of school teachers and students.</p> Debela Tezera Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 48 4 49 65 Effects of Resource Mobilization on Turkana Pastoralists’ Livelihoods: A Focus on Lake Turkana in Kenya <p>Both natural and human resources shall continue to play an instrumental role towards&nbsp;&nbsp; fulfilling people’s sustainable livelihoods as evidenced by the large population that still depends on resources for their basic needs. The scenario however is likely to change if appropriate measures are not evolved towards resource mobilization in enhancing sustainable livelihoods&nbsp;&nbsp; especially among the disadvantaged communities. The main objective of the study was to examine the impact of resource mobilization strategies on Turkana pastoral community, while specific objectives were to; evaluate resource mobilization strategies being applied to Lake Turkana as one of the major resources found in Turkana County, assess the impact of resource mobilization strategies on people’s livelihoods and analyze challenges faced in mobilizing resources around the Lake. The study was based on resource mobilization theory by McCarthy and Zald that views individuals as rational actors that are engaged in instrumental actions that use formal organizations to acquire resources and foster resource mobilization development. Descriptive survey research design was applied where simple random technique was used on stratified samples. Instruments of data collection were; questionnaires, focused group discussions, interview schedules and observation. Out of the targeted population of 134,674, a sample size of 277 was selected. Data was coded and assigned numeric values, descriptive and inferential statistics were analyzed using computer statistical software where results were presented in tables, graphs and figures.</p> <p>The study findings showed that Turkana community is endowed with numerous resources and Lake Turkana being one of the important resources available in Turkana County. The study indicated the following as key strategies for resource mobilization in Turkana; proposal writing, fundraising and community mobilization and support from the state and none state actors. The hypothesis was; Ho<sub>1</sub>, there is no significant relationship between resource mobilization strategies and people’s livelihoods. The hypothesis was tested and χ<sup>2</sup> = 1014.326, df =221 and sig = 0.000 was found. The researcher therefore rejected the null hypothesis since p &lt; 0.05 and confirmed that there existed a significant relationship between resource mobilization and pastoralist communities’ livelihoods. The relationship was established by use of Pearson Correlation Coefficient (r). The level of significance was set at .05 whereby a result would be statistically significant if p is less than the set value. The coefficient of determination (r squared) was calculated to quantify the strength of the linear relationship. There was need to determine the magnitude and direction of this relation. &nbsp;The results indicated a weak but positive (r = 0.382) correlation between resource mobilization strategies and pastoralist communities’ livelihoods. The study is worthwhile since it strengthens the existing policy framework on resource mobilization strategies on pastoral communities and also informs all the stake holders on matters of policy formulation and decision making on matters relating to Pastoral economy.</p> Lemuya Joshua Lojock Mulongo Leonard Simiyu David Kamar Imana Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) 2019-10-10 2019-10-10 48 4 34 48 Architectural Collage, an Applied Design Method for Landscape Urbanism <p>The article discusses “Architectural Collage” method application as a design technique for Landscape Urbanism. Landscape Urbanism is a contemporary mode of urban design that uses the mutable conditions of landscape as the foundation of urban plan and form. Although it has been the topic for many research works, no practical method is suggested for its implementation. Collage method, due to its philosophical affinity with Landscape Urbanism, can be a proper means to this end. Despite usual design methods, collage emphasizes the role of imagination and cognition in a multidisciplinary inverse process; where the ideal design outcome is depicted at the beginning of the design process. After shaping pectoral compositions with chosen fragments, the three-dimensional mockups based on the collage are made; consequently, the exterior form shapes compliant to the interior spaces. In other words, the function shapes the form by considering numerous layers of disciplines, functions, standards, ecology, and spatial quality. Initially, a comparison is made between previous urban policies, which led to formation of Landscape Urbanism. Afterwards, the similarity of collage philosophy with Landscape Urbanism is discussed. Finally, the article examines the implementation potential of collage through a case study already designed by this method. It is likely that collage can serve the goals of Landscape Urbanism. This method generally targets the students and professionals of Architecture, Landscape Architecture, and Urban Design; and can function as the complementary element for the use of Landscape Urbanism in contemporary urban projects.</p> Ania Khodabakhshian Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) 2019-10-10 2019-10-10 48 4 1 16 The Potential of Coarsely Ground, Gelatinized and Soaked Maize Grain as Energy Supplements to Arsi-Bale Sheep Fed a Basal Diet of Native Grass Hay <p>An experiment was conducted in Randomized Complete Block Design using eighteen yearling male Arsi-Bale sheep with initial body weight of 14.27±1.12 (mean ± SD) with the objective of determining effect of supplementing coarsely ground maize (CGM), gelatinized maize (GM), and soaked maize(SM) as energy supplement to native grass hay (GH) basal diet on feed intake, live weight change and carcass parameters of Arsi-Bale sheep. The growth experiment lasted for 90 days followed by evaluation of carcass parameters. The experimental sheep were blocked into six blocks of four animals each based on their initial live weight and animals from each block were randomly assigned to three treatments, giving a replication of six animals per treatments. At the end of the experimental period the sheep were deprived of feed and water for 14 hours to reduce gut content variation before slaughter for carcass evaluation. Native grass hay had high NDF (66.9%) and ADF (43.4%) contents and low CP (6.8%) content. The differently processed form of maize grain used in the experiment had low NDF, ADF and ADL contents. Maize grain supplemented sheep had similar (P&gt;0.05) hay DM, total DM and total OM intake which is at the end also similar in feed conversion efficiency, final body weight, average daily gain and dressing percentage.</p> <p>In the same way no significant differences (P&gt;0.05) were also observed among different forms of maize grain supplementation on rib-eye area, the total edible offal components and carcass parameters because of comparable nutritional profile of the different forms of the grain. Coarse grinding of maize grain was found to be equally effective as other forms of processing such as soaking and gelatinization in improving feed utilization, growth rate and carcass attributes of sheep at lower cost, which could lead to a better profit margin.</p> Ahmed Hussein Aster Abebe Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) 2019-10-10 2019-10-10 48 4 17 33 Analysis of Factors Affecting Coffee Farmer Behavior in Tanah Datar District <p>This study aims to analyze the factors that influence the behavior of coffee farmers in Tanah Datar District. This study uses a survey method in gathering data from the population of farmers who produce coffee with a sample of 100 farmers. The analytical tool used is Partial Least Square (PLS). The results showed knowledge and attitudes significantly influence the behavior of coffee farmers and have a positive connection. Meanwhile, knowledge and attitudes are significantly influenced by individual and environmental characteristics, and coherence with a positive relationship. Individual characteristics significantly influence the behavior of coffee farmers with knowledge and attitude as a mediating variable and have a positive relationship. The environment has a significant effect on the behavior of coffee farmers with knowledge and attitude as a mediating variable and has a positive relationship.</p> Hary Yanto Jailani Nofialdi Nofialdi Zulvera Zulvera Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) 2019-10-07 2019-10-07 48 4 278 290