International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) https://gssrr.org/index.php/JournalOfBasicAndApplied Multidisciplinary reputable journal: Peer reviewed, widely Indexed with Impact Factor, fast paper publication, and no deadline for paper submission. International Scientific Research and Researchers Association (ISRRA) en-US International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) 2307-4531 <p style="text-align: justify;">Authors who submit papers&nbsp;with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol start="1"> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">By submitting the processing fee, it is understood that the author has agreed to our terms and conditions which may change from time to time without any notice.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">It should be clear for authors that the Editor In Chief is responsible for the final decision about the submitted papers; have the right to accept\reject any paper. &nbsp;The Editor In Chief will choose any option from the following to review the submitted papers:A. send the paper to two reviewers, if the results were negative by one reviewer and positive by the other one; then the editor may send the paper for third reviewer or he take immediately the final decision by accepting\rejecting the paper. The Editor In Chief will ask the selected reviewers to present the results within 7 working days, if they were unable to complete the review within the agreed period then the editor have the right to resend the papers for new reviewers using the same procedure. If the Editor In Chief was not able to find suitable reviewers for certain papers then he have the right to accept\reject the paper.B. sends the paper to a selected editorial board member(s). C. the Editor In Chief himself evaluates the paper.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Author will take the responsibility what so ever if any copyright infringement or any other violation of any law is done by publishing the research work by the author</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Before publishing, author must check whether this journal is accepted by his employer, or any authority he intends to submit his research work. we will not be responsible in this matter.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">If at any time, due to any legal reason, if the journal stops accepting manuscripts or could not publish already accepted manuscripts, we will have the right to cancel all or any one of the manuscripts without any compensation or returning back any kind of processing cost.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">The cost covered in the publication fees is only for online publication of a single manuscript.</li> </ol> Development and Impact Evaluation of Community Development and Empowerment Program by PT Adaro Indonesia's in South Kalimantan https://gssrr.org/index.php/JournalOfBasicAndApplied/article/view/11989 <p>The responsibility of the company towards the social and environment around its working area becomes something that is mandatory. This responsibility is implemented in the form of a community development and empowerment program (PPM program). PT Adaro Indonesia is a company that operates coal mining in the Tabalong and Balangan regencies, South Kalimantan Province. In order for the PPM program to run well, it is necessary to evaluate the progress and impact of PT Adaro Indonesia's PPM program. The purpose of this study is to determine the development and impact of PT Adaro Indonesia's PPM program for the communities around the mining area. The research was conducted in August to September 2020, in the Tabalong and Balangan regencies. The research method used is descriptive analysis method. The results showed that the existence of PT Adaro's PPM program had a good impact on communities in the Tabalong and Balangan regencies.</p> Murjani Wahyub Fatmawati Taufik Hidayat Muhammad Yusuf Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-11-29 2020-11-29 54 5 350 358 The Need for Reorganizing the Evaluation System of the Postgraduate Diploma in Education Programme https://gssrr.org/index.php/JournalOfBasicAndApplied/article/view/11875 <p>The purpose of education is to provide the background process needed to successfully cope with changes taking place in society. The teacher education Programme in Sri Lanka for graduate teachers is known as the Postgraduate Diploma in Education. The evaluation process of this teacher education course has been identified as a major problem which has not been updated. The main objective of this article is to examine the evaluation methodology of the Postgraduate Diploma in Education and make necessary suggestions for improvement. Specifically, this study aims to explore how the evaluation process of the Postgraduate Diploma in Education can be reorganized and improved upon. The study used a survey layout with a detailed research approach which also incorporated interviews. In addition, a course-related lecturer sample was used to collect data relevant to the objective. It was also suggested that the evaluation activities should be reorganized according to the curriculum model presented by Kerr. Recommendations were made to use new assessment methods instead of physical methods and to include new subjects in the course.</p> W. M. S. Wanasinghe Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-11-28 2020-11-28 54 5 345 349 Mathematical Evaluation of Antiretroviral Therapy Effect in Ghana https://gssrr.org/index.php/JournalOfBasicAndApplied/article/view/11951 <p>&nbsp;Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV-AIDS) has continued to be a tremor to the health sector in Ghana. One person was first diagnosed with HIV-AIDS in the Eastern region part of Ghana in 1986. Subsequently, 41 people more were diagnosed HIV positive in the same year. The spread of this disease was tremendous to the extent that about 107, 333 and 2744 people were diagnosed by the end of the years 1987, 1988 and 1990 respectively; hence it was declared as epidemic in accordance with the status of World Health Organization (WHO). Because there is no cure for it yet, the Government of Ghana and other stakeholders have taken some interventions to reduce the spread of this epidemic. One of these interventions was the introduction of the antiretroviral therapy (ART) program in 2003 by the Ghana AIDS Commission (GAC) through the Ghana Health Service (GHS). &nbsp;This research was therefore purposed at the use of phase trajectories to evaluate the effect of the ART program on the HIV infections rate. The data on the number of HIV infected people per each year for the years 1986-2018 were collated from the reports given by Ghana AIDS Commission (GAC), WHO and UNAIDS published on their associate websites. The whole data set was divided into two, with data one and two illustrating the yearly number of HIV infected people for the periods before (1986-2002) and after (2003-2018) the introduction of the ART program respectively. Phase trajectory analysis was then performed on the various components of the two data sets. Hypothesis testing was finally performed on the means of the two data sets to confirm the results of the phase trajectory analysis. The various phase trajectories illustrating data one (1086-2002) indicated a tremendous yearly increase in the HIV infection rate from 1986 to 2002, while those of data two indicated a tremendous yearly decrease in the HIV infection rate from 2003 to 2018. It was further confirmed at 0.05 significant level that the average number of HIV infected people before the introduction of the ART program was greater than that after the introduction of the ART program. Hence, the ART program contributed much to the reduction of the HIV infection rate in Ghana. The nature of this study, being first in Ghana, and its findings will help in updating the Ghanaian government, citizenly and other stakeholders on the trend of HIV infection rate with the introduction of the ART program.</p> Richard Ayamah Zutaah Puotier Godwin Kofi Awuitor Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-11-28 2020-11-28 54 5 329 344 Incorporating Technology on a Chemistry Curriculum Material for Molecular Geometry https://gssrr.org/index.php/JournalOfBasicAndApplied/article/view/11966 <p>This paper aims to develop a curriculum material for science that is responsive to student’s and teacher’s feedback, societal demands and national goals. This study utilized input-process-output model of material development. Baseline evaluation of the needs, resources, goal alignment, and assessment of current curriculum involving Grade 9 students and teachers of a public high school in Bay, Laguna served as basis for the development of the curriculum material. The developed curriculum material features technology integration like audio-video clips, digital applications, hands-on activities encouraging improvisation of materials and community simulation, and concrete representations of abstract concepts to enhance student learning experience.&nbsp; Using the module, students were made to answer practice problems and exercises independently. The student involvement index, communication index, and Fry’s readability index of the module was determined. The updated curriculum material was found to be useful to both the students and teachers.</p> Aprhodite M. Macale Hazel Joyce M. Ramirez Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-11-28 2020-11-28 54 5 314 328 Determinants of Growth of Preschool Children in Rural and Urban Areas North Central Timor District - East Nusa Tenggara Province - Indonesia https://gssrr.org/index.php/JournalOfBasicAndApplied/article/view/11969 <p>Background: The prevalence of children under five failing to thrive in North Central Timor 2019 is still high; underweight 27.54%, stunting 51.8% and wasting 4.81%. Stunting and underweight are highest in the preschool age group while wasting are lower in the higher age group. Family socio-economy, parenting patterns, consumption patterns and infectious diseases are risk factors for children's growth. &nbsp;Objective: To analyze the description of differences and determinants of growth in preschool children in rural and urban areas. Methods: Observational study with cross-sectional design. Multistage sampling technique with a number of 130 subjects in rural areas and 130 in urban areas. The Mann Whitney test identifies the difference in variables. Multiple logistic regression analysis to determine the determinants of growth.</p> <p>Results: There were significant differences (p = &lt;0.05) in the variables of maternal education, maternal occupation, family income, feeding practices, health hygiene practices, food frequency. There was no significant difference (p&gt; 0.05) in family size, love and cares practice, academic practice, incidence of illness, frequency of illness and duration of illness.&nbsp;</p> <p>Determinants of growth in rural areas; health hygiene practice (p value = 0.011; OR = 3.177; 95%CI= 1,299-7,770), food frequency (p value = 0.025;OR = 2.522; 95%CI= 1,122-5,669) and frequency of illness (p value = 0.043, OR = 2.453; 95%CI= 1,029-5,846) while in urban areas; practice of love and cares (p value = 0.022, OR = 3,390; 95%CI= 1,192-9,639) and duration of illness (p value = 0.033, OR = 2.226; 95%CI= 1,068-4,640). Conclusion: Health hygiene practice, food frequency and sickness frequency are determinants of growth in rural areas, while in urban areas are the practice of compassion and duration of illness. Efforts to overcome growth disorders can be done through increasing knowledge related to the practice of parenting.</p> Norbertus R. Ratrigis Stefanus P. Manongg Frans Umbu Datta Herianus J.D. Lalel Anderias Umbu Roga Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-11-28 2020-11-28 54 5 304 313