International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) Multidisciplinary reputable journal: Peer reviewed, widely Indexed with Impact Factor, fast paper publication, and no deadline for paper submission. International Scientific Research and Researchers Association (ISRRA) en-US International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) 2307-4531 <p style="text-align: justify;">Authors who submit papers&nbsp;with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol start="1"> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">By submitting the processing fee, it is understood that the author has agreed to our terms and conditions which may change from time to time without any notice.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">It should be clear for authors that the Editor In Chief is responsible for the final decision about the submitted papers; have the right to accept\reject any paper. &nbsp;The Editor In Chief will choose any option from the following to review the submitted papers:A. send the paper to two reviewers, if the results were negative by one reviewer and positive by the other one; then the editor may send the paper for third reviewer or he take immediately the final decision by accepting\rejecting the paper. The Editor In Chief will ask the selected reviewers to present the results within 7 working days, if they were unable to complete the review within the agreed period then the editor have the right to resend the papers for new reviewers using the same procedure. If the Editor In Chief was not able to find suitable reviewers for certain papers then he have the right to accept\reject the paper.B. sends the paper to a selected editorial board member(s). C. the Editor In Chief himself evaluates the paper.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Author will take the responsibility what so ever if any copyright infringement or any other violation of any law is done by publishing the research work by the author</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Before publishing, author must check whether this journal is accepted by his employer, or any authority he intends to submit his research work. we will not be responsible in this matter.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">If at any time, due to any legal reason, if the journal stops accepting manuscripts or could not publish already accepted manuscripts, we will have the right to cancel all or any one of the manuscripts without any compensation or returning back any kind of processing cost.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">The cost covered in the publication fees is only for online publication of a single manuscript.</li> </ol> Effect of Flipped Classroom and Think Pair Share Strategy on Achievement and Retention Among Senior Secondary School Physics Students <p>Recently, physics students’ achievement and retention is deteriorating. To students, physics have a lot of abstract concepts and difficult to deal with. One of the reasons for this erroneous mindset is on the method in which teaching and learning of physics is done. Based on this, the study was necessitated, to determine the effect of flipped classroom and think pair share strategy on achievement and retention among senior secondary school physics students. 2×2 factorial research design was adopted. The population of the study comprised of all the 3965 senior secondary school two (SS2) physics students in 16 public schools in Onitsha-North Local Government of Anambra State, Nigeria. The sample size of the study comprised of 194 students of two intact classes or stream from a single senior secondary school drawn from the population using simple random sampling technique. The instrument for data collection was Physics Achievement Test (PAT) which consist of 20-items multiple choice questions of response opinion a, b, c &amp; d. 0.77 reliability coefficient was established for PAT using test retest of temporal stability. All groups were pretested before the experiment and posttested after the experiment.</p> <p>PAT was reshuffled two weeks after the posttest to obtain students retention score. Mean and standard deviation was used in answering all the research questions while Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test all the null hypotheses. The result showed that flipped classroom is more superior in enhancing the achievement and retention of physics students. From the findings, it was recommended among others that state government in synergy with the school authorities should provide good flipped classroom facilities which will aid students’ achievement and technological development to compete with the world at large.</p> Christian Sunday Ugwuanyi Chukwuebuka Christopher Ndujib Ugochukwu Christian Elejere Ngozi Ekene Omeke Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) 2020-07-01 2020-07-01 52 2 136 148 Formal Versus Informal Training & Tacit Versus Explicit Knowledge Sharing: What Matters More for the Entrepreneurially Oriented Firms? <p>The beneficial outcome of a firm’s entrepreneurial orientation (E.O) has been widely researched, but literature and empirical studies about factors that stimulate E.O remain scarce. &nbsp;Previous research has showed that employee training is a crucial mechanism to foster E.O others has exhibited that a higher level of knowledge sharing is related to a stronger E.O. Although, previous researches do not distinguish neither between different type of training, with the most important distinction being between formal and informal nor between different form of knowledge sharing, with the very popular being between tacit and explicit. In view of the difference for each pair contrasts of one over the other, they are widely considered to have different impact on the E.O’s dimensions namely innovativeness, proactiveness, and risk-taking in SMEs. &nbsp;Our research model is tested with survey data collected from 186 Tunisian small and medium-sized textile &amp; clothing firms. Findings reveal that the level of each dimension of E.O- Innovativeness, proactiveness and risk taking differs based on the form of knowledge sharing either tacit or explicit and the type of training either formal or informal.</p> Faten Methammem Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) 2020-07-01 2020-07-01 52 2 104 135 A Study on Street Hawkers and Their Willing Towards Continuation of Hawking Business in Bangladesh: A Statistical Analysis <p>This study is an attempt to examine the association of various socio-demographic characteristics on the willing concerning continuation of hawking business for the respondents of Chattogram metropolitan area in Bangladesh. The association of the selected variables with the willing concerning continuation of hawking business were examined using bivariate and logistic regression analyses. The result shows that the respondents who are male, married, come from the rural areas, secondary and less than secondary educated are more involved in street hawking than those who are female, unmarried, urban areas residents, higher secondary and above educated. Again, logistic regression analysis for the willing regarding continuation of hawking business shows that sex, marital status, educational qualification, age, monthly income, rural urban migration, savings’ ability, fathers’ survival status are highly significantly associated with willing towards continuation of respondents’ business.Street hawker</p> Mohammad Monjur Morshed Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) 2020-06-26 2020-06-26 52 2 93 103 Caries Incidence, by DMFT Index of Libyan School Children Concerning Socio-demographic Variables and Oral Health Behavior <p><strong>Background and aims: </strong>dental caries are the most prevalent chronic disease and are caused due to complex interplay of behavioral, cultural, social, and dietary factors. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental caries and its relation to socioeconomic variables among Libyan children in Benghazi.<strong> Material and method</strong>: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 207 of children aged 6-12 years in Benghazi, Libya. Patient’s data were recorded in a special form such as parent’s educations, employment, home density, family income, tooth brushing, mouth rinse, dental floss, and dental service. The diagnostic criteria for caries incidence were based on the oral Health Organization (WHO) Criteria. The child’s caries were measured by dmft and DMFT indices. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. A Chi-square test was used, whereas a p-value less than 0.05 were considered significant. <strong>Results: </strong>caries-free teeth in the permanent dentition were 63.8%, while caries teeth were 36.2%. The DMFT in boys and girls were (1.14±0.19, and 1.28±0.19 respectively). The (dmft) in primary dentition was higher in boys and girls (5.45±0.39 and 4.77±0.38 respectively). No significant differences were found for the DMFT index to gender, mother<sup>‘</sup>s employment, and family income (P &gt;0.05). However, significant differences were observed regarding the mother’s education, father’s education, Father<sup>’</sup>s employment, and home density (P &lt;0.0001). <strong>Conclusion</strong>: the socioeconomic levels an important predictor of caries presence in the children. The possibility of being caries free is increased with the increscent in the parent’s education; therefore the public health planners should consider these findings when planning interventions to promote dental health education and services.</p> Majda Elfseyie Sokaina Elshebani Saied Elsenussi Rogaia Alaskandrani Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) 2020-06-26 2020-06-26 52 2 84 92 The Effect of Marketing Mix on Buying Interest (Study at Mentari Muara Bungo Supermarkets) <p>This study aims to determine the relationship between the marketing mix variable (X) and the buying interest variable (Y). This research is a survey research with quantitative approach. The study population was all consumers while the research sample of consumers who shopped at the Mentari Muara Bungo Supermarkets. The sampling technique uses accidental sampling and simple random sampling that is the consumer who is shopping at the time the researcher distributes the questionnaire. Methods of data collection using pre-prepared questionnaires and data analysis using multiple linear regression with IBM SPSS Statistics version. 20 The results showed that partially the product test results for tcount &lt; ttable (0.537 &lt; 1,989) sig level of 0.593 &gt; 0.05 conclusion of H1 were rejected, the price of tcount &lt; ttable (1,905 &lt; 1,989) sig level of 0.060 &gt; 0.05 conclusion of H2 was rejected, promotion variable tcount &gt; ttable (2.892 &lt; 1,989) sig level 0.005 &lt; 0.05 H3 conclusion accepted, location variable tcount &gt; ttable (2,588 &lt; 1,989) sig level &gt; 0.05 conclusion H4 accepted. Simultaneously the product, price, promotion and location variables together influence the buying interest Fcount &gt; Ftable and sig 0.011 &lt; 0.05 Conclusions H5 is accepted.</p> tarjo Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) 2020-06-23 2020-06-23 52 2 68 83