International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) Multidisciplinary reputable journal: Peer reviewed, widely Indexed with Impact Factor, fast paper publication, and no deadline for paper submission. International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research en-US International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) 2307-4531 <p style="text-align: justify;">Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the <a title="Copyright Notice" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">following terms</a>.&nbsp;</p> Is the National Accreditation System Sufficient? Critique of the System in the United States to Vietnam and Japan Japan Foundation Japan Studies Through Collaboration <p>Higher education has jumped into the quality movement with expectations of enhancing the excellence of education being received by students.&nbsp; Higher education institutions are becoming a business while knowledge is becoming the commodity, with all aspects of education subject to global trade.&nbsp; There is a need for education to become more efficient, self-sufficient, and accountable.&nbsp; Neo-liberalism reduces governmental subsidies, while shifting costs to the market and consumers.&nbsp; Furthermore, it demands accountability for performance, and emphasize higher education’s role in the economy.&nbsp; The injection of accountability and accreditation into the educational system is necessary for a quality global educational system.&nbsp; This paper looks at the development of national accreditation within the United States, Vietnam, and Japan.&nbsp; Developing an understanding of the accreditation process will contribute to the literature surrounding accreditation and quality assurance.</p> Dr. Patricia Abels Dr. Ha Duy Mong Nguyen Dr. Hiroaki Kawamura Masahiro Chikada Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) 2021-09-17 2021-09-17 61 1 202 221 Genetic Characterization of the Kada-Goudami Lineage for the Improvement of Onion (Allium cepa L.) Cultivation in the Sudano-Sahelian Zone of Cameroon <p>The objective of this study is to analyze the possibilities of growing the Kada-Goudami lineage for improved onion production in the Sudano-Sahelian zone of Cameroon. From multi-location trials conducted during the 2019 to 2020 rainy and dry seasons at the Nguetchewe, Palar and Pitoa sites. Yield and phenology characteristics were evaluated to select the Kada-Goudami lineage as a "rescue seed, catch-up cultivar or alternative crop". The popularized varieties (El Kara, Goudami and Violet de Galmi) served as controls. Vegetative development, phenology and yield components of the different genotypes were evaluated and compared in a randomized complete block design in each site during the two seasons. Extended heritability values and expected gains from selection were determined. Variance analyses show the significant differences between the genotypes tested. The mean value of heritability of the studied traits is overall high (h² ≥ 0.84) and the expected gains from selection are relatively appreciable. This shows the possibility of effective selection and genetic improvement. The Kada-Goudami lineage appears to be better adapted to the dry season in our growing area, but it can also be used as a cool season crop (October-January).</p> <p><strong>Résumé&nbsp;</strong>: L’objectif de cette étude est d’analyser les possibilités de culture de la lignée Kada-Goudami pour une amélioration de la production de l’oignon en zone soudano-sahélienne du Cameroun. A partir des essais multilocaux conduits au cours de la saison pluvieuse et sèche en 2019 et 2020, sur les sites de Nguetchewe, Palar et Pitoa. Les caractéristiques du rendement et de la phénologie ont été évaluées en vue de sélectionner la lignée Kada-Goudami comme «&nbsp;semence secours ou cultivar de rattrapage voire culture alternative&nbsp;». Les variétés vulgarisées (El Kara, Goudami et le Violet de Galmi) ont servi des témoins. Le développement végétatif, la phénologie et les composantes du rendement des différents génotypes ont été évalués et comparés dans un dispositif en blocs complets randomisés dans chaque site pendant les deux saisons. Les valeurs d’héritabilité au sens large et les gains attendus de la sélection ont été déterminées. Les analyses de variance montrent les différences significatives entre les génotypes testés. La valeur moyenne de l’héritabilité des caractères étudiés est globalement élevée (h² ≥ 0,84<strong>)</strong> et les gains attendus de sélection sont relativement appréciables. Ce qui montre la possibilité d’une sélection efficace et d’amélioration génétique. La lignée Kada-Goudami semble mieux adaptée en saison sèche dans notre zone de culture mais on peut aussi l’utiliser comme culture de saison fraiche (Octobre-Janvier). Cette étude montre que la lignée Kada-Goudami est prometteuse pour améliorer la production de l’oignon en milieu soudano-sahélienne du Cameroun.</p> Gabriel Moutsavara Philippe Kosma Jean Baptiste Noubissié Tchiagam Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) 2021-09-16 2021-09-16 61 1 184 201 The Use of Cannabinoids in the Management of Chronic Pain: A Perceptual Survey among Practitioners <p>The management of chronic pain represents a challenge due to limitations and side effects associated with conventional treatments. Thus, the introduction of medical cannabis represents a new effective strategy. The purpose of this study is to investigate the acceptability of medical cannabis among practitioners and evaluate its limitations and obstacles to its use in medicine. We collected the data through a questionnaire that targeted doctors (neurologists and oncologists) in major university hospitals and private practices. The results of our study showed that the most important limitations to the use of conventional treatment are end-of-dose failure and resistance to treatment. We also found that the lack of clinical studies, the risk of addiction and mental illness represent the principal limitations to the use of medical cannabis. In addition, our study confirmed that the major obstacles to the introduction of cannabinoids in the pharmaceutical market are related to legislation, religion, and social stigmatization. Despite these limitations and barriers, most Moroccan doctors are favorable to its prescription without fear of legal persecution. Our study, the firstone of its kind in North Africa, provides essential data regarding the acceptability of its medical use and represents a starting point for more in-depth research.</p> Mohamed Berra Amine Fikry Sara Esseddiki Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) 2021-09-14 2021-09-14 61 1 175 183 Faith and Responsibility in Individual Sovereignty <p class="Els-Abstract-text"><span lang="EN-US">This paper deals with two conceptual problems of individual sovereignty as pointed out by Duffel (2007) and Duffel (2004), that I call as “theoretical problem” and “aberration problem” respectively. The concept of sovereignty in general, and individual sovereignty in particular, suffered serious theoretical problems that seem irresolvable. But arguably it is a concept with great operational success as proven by four centuries of Western civilization dominance. How can a concept achieve such an operational success yet conceptually flawed? The second problem of sovereignty is related to the objections that it places too much weight on rights. To address both these conceptual problems this paper will resort to the teaching of Jordan Peterson, and speculates that what underpins the concept itself is that of faith as opposed to reason, and argues for the return to the more classical version of it that focuses more on responsibility. It concludes that Christians ought to give more serious thought on individual sovereignty as its manifestation is arguably the greatest gift from Judeo-Christian tradition to mankind, especially in the sphere of socio-politic.</span></p> Aristo Purboadji Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) 2021-09-13 2021-09-13 61 1 153 161 Covid-19 Vaccines, Countries around the World, and the Vaccines they are Currently Administering: A Practical Insight and Narrative Review <p>The push for vaccine approval during the heat of the Covid-19 Pandemic was unusual, in the world of vaccines. Countries also had to ensure the various vaccines that have been approved for use were safe and acceptable by the populace. This review aimed to provide the most recent insight into the current vaccines that have been approved for use and what countries over the world are using to vaccinate their teeming population. A search was done on 5 August 2021 on peer-reviewed English literature, indexed in PubMed, Medline, and other relevant sources, online. Results from 23 peer-reviewed English surveyed studies formed the basis of the final Covid-19 vaccines and what countries around the world are currently using. The Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine had the highest number of reviews (74%) followed by Moderna (60%), while Covaxin and CasinoBio had the smallest published studies at 10% each.&nbsp; A total number of 11 vaccines were found to have been approved for use, from studies.&nbsp; The kingdom of Bahrain had the highest number of vaccines approved for use (6/11, 54%) while China had 5, (5/11, 45%) followed by the UK, with 4 vaccines currently approved for use (4/11, 36%). Countries like Puerto Rico, have no vaccine approved for use, others such as Tanzania, Burundi, and Eritrea are yet to receive vaccines. South Africa is the only country in Africa that is currently participating in vaccine trials. This could act as a harbinger to vaccine approval and use in many African countries. More vaccine-based trials and studies are needed mostly in Sub-Saharan African countries, North and South America.</p> Abdul-Azeez Muhammed Priscilla Humado Stanley Ozogbo Taiwo Solarin Adebola Afolayan Gabriel Alugba Abdulhakim Sambo Nkechinyere Okafor Sawai Rathore Rihanat Ayantayo Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) 2021-09-13 2021-09-13 61 1 162 174