International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) <p style="text-align: justify;">The International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) is <strong>multidisciplinary peer reviewed Journal </strong><strong>intended to publish original research papers, and review articles in the following fields (but not limited to):</strong> anthropology, archaeology, communication, criminology, education, government, linguistics, international relations, political science, sociology, Earth science, Ecology, Oceanography, Meteorology, Life science, Human biology, Decision theory, Logic, Mathematics, Statistics, Systems theory, Theoretical computer science, Applied physics, Computer science, all Fields of engineering, Accounting, , Education, Economics, Medical Technology, Biology, Medicine, Management, History, Mineralogy, Civil Engineering, Marine Technology, Commerce, Chemical Engineering, Animal Sciences, Petroleum &amp; Gas, Energy Resources, Agriculture, Medical Sciences, Machine Learning, Machinery, computer Science, Chemistry, Neural Networks, Physics, Social Science, Geology, Transportation, Waste Management, Control Engineering, Applied Mathematics, Oceanography, Biomedical Materials, Construction, Metallurgy, Neural Computing, Industrial Arts, IT, Astronology, Fire &amp; Fire Prevention, Robotics Marine Sciences, Solid State Technology, Business Administration, Food &amp;Food Industry, Atmospheric Sciences, Artificial Intelligence, Textile Industry &amp; Fabrics, Education science, Physiology, Nano Science, Microbiology, Psychology, Statistics, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Genetics, Botany, Veterinary Sciences, Biotechnology, Biochemistry, Zoology, Oncology, Accounting, Entomology, Parasitology, Evolution, human behavior, Biophysics, Fisheries, Pharmacology, Geography, Cell Biology, Genomics, Plant Biology, Law, Religious Studies, Endocrinology, Dentistry, Infectious Diseases, Toxicology, Immunology, Teacher education, and Neuroscience. </p> <p style="text-align: justify;">This International journal usually will provide the Editor's decision based on the peer review results <strong>within 4 weeks (28 days)</strong> from the paper submission date.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The journal accepts scientific papers for publication after passing the journal's double peer review process. For detailed information about the journal kindly check <a title="About the Journal" href="">About the Journal</a> page. </p> <p> </p> en-US <p style="text-align: justify;">Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the <a title="Copyright Notice" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">following terms</a>.&nbsp;</p> (Prof. Mohamad L. A. Anabtawi) (Technical Support) Mon, 17 Apr 2023 18:01:04 +0000 OJS 60 Social and Emotional Barriers in Online Graduate Counseling Programs: Recommendations for Effective Practice for Working with Hispanic Adult Learners <p>Hispanic learners in higher education face unique challenges and barriers to success. An understanding of Adult Learning Theory through the lens of Hispanic culture is imperative, particularly in relation to both social and emotional barriers that are likely to disrupt the graduate learning process.&nbsp; The responsibility to effectively lead and educate such learners falls into the hands of counselor educators in higher education. When considering ethnic diversity among adult learners, it is imperative to explore effective practice methodologies for students from specific cultures/ethnic origins. The purpose of this semi-systematic review was to explore the case of Jen, a Hispanic/Latina graduate student enrolled in an online masters in clinical mental health counseling program, and to synthesize implications for effective practice in educating and working with Hispanic students.</p> Dr. Jill Willis, Dr. Charlotte Phillips, Christopher Ogaz Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) Tue, 30 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Contribution to the Taking into Account of Environmental Factors of Vulnerability of Reinforced Concrete Buildings in the City of Douala-Cameroon <p>The environment of the city of Douala (humid, porous, sandy-clay soil), plays a determining role on the vulnerability of reinforced concrete constructions, by effects of corrosion of degradations, and destructions of the structures (buildings). Relative Y, the method tree of the causes and the tests pH-metric, granulometric and permeameters , allowed us to seek, to check and to analyze certain environmental factors impacting on the constructions, weakening the concrete and pari cochet , the resistance and the durability of the buildings. To this end, the pH tests of groundwater, springs and industrial discharges, containing chloride ions (Cl-), sulphates and carbon dioxides from heavy rainfall and flooding, attack by an electrochemical mechanism the reinforcement and framework of the constructions. Thus, the results obtained from the tests, demonstrate how the dangerous acids present in water, penetrate into the reinforced concrete to destroy it. The resulting chemical reaction of hydration absorbs the water and swells the concrete to reach the steel, weakening it and destroying the protective film (passivation). The action of water on concrete is declined by absorption, hydrolysis, dissolution, solvation and crystallization. Also, the corrosion rate of materials remaining strongly inherent to the high humidity and PH level ? 6, directly influencing the electrical resistivity conductivity and diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide in concrete.</p> <p>As such, the relative humidity (RH) or high water content in concrete and the environment of the site receiving the construction project, produces permeability decreasing effects in the presence of oxygen. These effects contribute to stimulate and increase the corrosion process. Because, water, soil and industrial pollutants, affect the works Given, that it is demonstrated that a quasi-permanent moisture content ? 55% in a porous material such as concrete, leads to the loss of 20 to 30% of its cohesion. Hence, the various forms of degradation and loss of loads suffered by the constructions. To this end, the binder content, mineral additives and the water/cement ratio (W/C), are to be considered for the evaluation, resistance and durability of the constructions. Also, most of the methods used to determine the permeability of porous materials are based on Darcy's law. This is because, in its basic form, the fluid flows through a disc-shaped sample under a pressure gradient. Consequently, in addition to the requirement of carrying out geotechnical studies of materials and soil in accordance with the standards of construction and urban planning, pH metric tests are necessary for the effective consideration of environmental factors to achieve the resilience and durability of reinforced concrete structures. It will be in particular: ( i ) to identify and analyze the impacts of water and soil on reinforced concrete constructions; (ii) to verify and analyze the compliance of the said constructions with the geotechnical and urban planning standards (realization of geotechnical studies and the use of adequate quality materials and qualified manpower); (iii) to contribute to the considerable reduction of the vulnerability of the works to the attacks of the sulphates , for a better safety and durability of the constructions.</p> Langola Olivier, Abanda André, Lontsi Frédéric, Kom Charles Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) Sat, 13 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A Model for Small Farm Sugar Industry Business Development in Lareh Sago Halaban District, Lima Puluh Kota Regency,West Sumatera, Indonesia <p>Lareh Sago Halaban District in Lima Puluh Kota Regency is one of the palm sugar producers and centers palm plantations in West Sumatra Province. This is supported by the palm sugar processing industry in in Labuah Gunuang Village. However, product marketing is still limited and the sap processing factory has not met the standards. Objective This research is to design a palm sugar business development model in Labuah Gunuang Village, District Lareh Sago Halaban. The research was conducted at the Mutiara Jorong Talaweh farmer group in Labuah Gunuang Village, because the Mutiara farmer group is sap processing industry centers into printed palm sugar, liquid palm sugar, ant sugar and fresh sap. The Research had been done in June-October 2022. The research method was carried out in a descriptive qualitative manner. Data analysis by compiling designing a model for the development of the palm sugar industry qualitatively based on the determinants industrial development.</p> <p>The results of the study obtained a design model for small palm sugar industry business development the Mutiara farmer group, namely ant sugar, is made in sachets weighing 7.5 – 10 grams per sachet, sugar aren is printed into a smaller size of 2x2 cm so that its use is practical for one use, results processed sap that is more hygienic by fixing processed factories that meet standards from Food and Drug Supervisory Agency certificate and Halal so that they meet the standard requirements of hotels, cafes and minimarkets, marketing needs to be developed with digital marketing through social media, and market place, as well as the need for funding sources from investors and local government.</p> Misfit Putrina, Helentina Situmorang, Noveri, Andi Eviza Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) Tue, 30 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 On Responsibility in University Teaching: Aspects Contributing to the Enhancement of Teaching Quality Provided at Universities <p>This paper will highlight the intrinsic link between university educators’ general responsibilities and the three domains of responsibilities. The text initially presents perspectives regarding responsibility and the act of teaching. It is then followed by an analysis of the concept of responsibility in teaching, which is examined across three distinct domains: the domain of encouraging students’ curiosity, the domain of keeping abreast of the prospective career requirements for students, and the domain of language usage. In brief, it is crucial to enhance teachers' sense of responsibility toward their students, as it can ultimately result in enhanced academic achievement and personal development for students.</p> Jelena Vukićević-Nešić, Nataša Lukić Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) Mon, 22 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Internationalization of Higher Education in China: A Case Study of A University <p>This study focuses on analyzing the internationalization of higher education in a specific university in China during the 13th Five Year Plan Period (2016-2020). The purpose of the research is to collect, classify, and sort literature related to the topic and discuss the development context and implementation status of higher education internationalization. The study uses document analysis and case interviews to conduct a case study of the university. In the document analysis, university affairs materials, subordinate school data statistics, and other relevant documents are examined to understand the current practice of education internationalization of the university. The study then proposes a development path for the university's internationalization, which includes talent training, faculty members, scientific research, and people-to-people exchange. Overall, the study provides insights into the internationalization of higher education in a specific university in China and presents a potential pathway for the university to enhance its global engagement.</p> Meng Lin WANG, Tong Wooi CHOW (Jerry) Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) Mon, 22 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000