International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) Multidisciplinary reputable journal: Peer reviewed, widely Indexed with Impact Factor, fast paper publication, and no deadline for paper submission. en-US <p style="text-align: justify;">Authors who submit papers&nbsp;with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol start="1"> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">By submitting the processing fee, it is understood that the author has agreed to our terms and conditions which may change from time to time without any notice.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">It should be clear for authors that the Editor In Chief is responsible for the final decision about the submitted papers; have the right to accept\reject any paper. &nbsp;The Editor In Chief will choose any option from the following to review the submitted papers:A. send the paper to two reviewers, if the results were negative by one reviewer and positive by the other one; then the editor may send the paper for third reviewer or he take immediately the final decision by accepting\rejecting the paper. The Editor In Chief will ask the selected reviewers to present the results within 7 working days, if they were unable to complete the review within the agreed period then the editor have the right to resend the papers for new reviewers using the same procedure. If the Editor In Chief was not able to find suitable reviewers for certain papers then he have the right to accept\reject the paper.B. sends the paper to a selected editorial board member(s). C. the Editor In Chief himself evaluates the paper.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Author will take the responsibility what so ever if any copyright infringement or any other violation of any law is done by publishing the research work by the author</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Before publishing, author must check whether this journal is accepted by his employer, or any authority he intends to submit his research work. we will not be responsible in this matter.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">If at any time, due to any legal reason, if the journal stops accepting manuscripts or could not publish already accepted manuscripts, we will have the right to cancel all or any one of the manuscripts without any compensation or returning back any kind of processing cost.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">The cost covered in the publication fees is only for online publication of a single manuscript.</li> </ol> (Dr. Mohammad Nasar) (Rabindra Corat Kayastha) Fri, 05 Mar 2021 07:25:42 +0000 OJS 60 Practicum Experiences of Prospective Teachers: The Inevitable Adaptation to Teaching Online <p>Prospective teachers (students) in the Bachelor of Education (BEd.) programme at the University of Trinidad and Tobago, Year Three, would have been required to conduct ‘field’ practicum at various schools throughout the country, under normal circumstances. However, due to the pandemic and the closure of all schools, only online classes were conducted and adaptations had to be made to acclimatize to the situation. Prospective teachers were required to engage in teaching to their peers online, together with micro-teaching which complemented the process. Instructors as well as classmates and presenters engaged in critique, rigorous analysis, reflection and feedback. The sample included forty (40) full-time students, generally between the ages of 18 to 25, who had no previous classroom teaching experiences. A mixed-method approach was deemed as suitable to investigate how prospective teachers adapted to online teaching and learning to implement the content of the prescribed curriculum. Online questionnaires, focus group interviews, via Zoom and reflective writings were used to collect data. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were integrated for data analyses. The findings revealed that most prospective teachers were very proficient with the use of the Zoom platform and were very creative in their approaches for teaching using videos, online games, power point presentations and voice-overs. However, there were instances of major problems involving internet connectivity and instability, particularly for those who live in remote villages. In addition, some students preferred online-teaching, while others indicated a preference for a blended approach. The results have serious connotations for the health and well-being of students. Those who are constrained by a lack of internet feel disadvantaged, vulnerable and marginalized.</p> Dr Leela Ramsook, Ms Marlene Thomas Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) Sun, 07 Mar 2021 08:10:59 +0000 A Critical Review and Response to the Climate Change Denier Letter “There Is No Climate Emergency” <p>The deliberations bordering around the disaster of climate change today has become a matter of growing importance to many environmentalists around the world as well as environmentally concerned organizations like the United Nations. The combination of anthropogenic activities on the environment which began over half a century ago has only served to exacerbate the effects of heat waves, natural disasters, ocean acidification processes, etc, being witnessed around the world today. This has necessitated more scientific investigations to be conducted over time into the causes and solutions to the climate change problem. Nonetheless, just as with every deliberative process which, more often than not, constitutes contrasting views, climate change deniers continue to refute this reality of climate change in our world today. One of the most outstanding denier arguments was recently written by a group of scientists, professors and political leaders, under the sponsorship of the European Climate Declaration, in a letter titled “There is no climate emergency”. In this letter, these deniers penned down six points in refutation of climate change and its emergency. Therefore, in continuation of the ongoing climate change deliberations, this research attempts to review and respond to these points raised by these professors against the reality and emergency of climate change. In doing so, this research arrives at the conclusion that climate change is indeed a reality of the present age and more importantly, an emergency.</p> Charles Tochukwu Ugwuonah Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) Sun, 07 Mar 2021 08:00:51 +0000 Highlights of Trends and Future Challenges in Higher Education Institutions: An Explanatory Study <p>Transformation in the systems of higher education, increasing limitations of state funding and other related issues have led to elevate discussions on this matter. Existing descriptive research inclines to examine the relatively important emerging trends and challenges that are expected to be faced by the higher education institutes. Current study generally explains the higher educational context and has highlighted various discussions, overviews, and perceptions of various scholars of the field. In the broader framework the expected outcome is applicable to the policy makers at higher education level to see a glimpse of possible rising trends and emerging challenges in the higher educational sector and act accordingly. Further in other perspective the paper can be used in the literature review for further studies that tend to deeply investigate any specific challenge of higher education. Therefore, by keeping the track of emerging trends and challenges of higher education institutions will prove to be helpful in moving a step ahead.</p> Muhammad Umer Shahid Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) Sun, 07 Mar 2021 07:52:11 +0000 Variations in Haematological and Immunological Parameters among Hospitalized COVID 19 Patients <p>Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2, a novel virus, has spreading globally, leading the World Health Organization to declare a pandemic. This study aims to ascertain the changes in haematological and immunological parameters in COVID-19 patients. Methods: Data from 109 confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted for treatment in the Isolation Centre at Al-Zawia city between 16 September and 29 December 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were extracted from electronic medical records and compared with those of 52 healthy controls.Results: The laboratory tests included blood routines and cellular and inflammatory biomarkers compared with healthy controls.&nbsp; Hospitalized patients had higher WBC (p&lt;0.0001), platelet (<em>P</em>= 0.0060), NEU (<em>P</em>&lt;0.0001), and RBC (<em>P</em>&lt;0.0001) counts. C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) scores were compared with the normal range where data were not available from healthy controls and the results showed significantly higher levels in patients with Covid-19 (p&lt;0.0001). Conversely, lymphocyte (LYM) counts were significantly lower in Covid-19 patients (<em>P</em>&lt;0.0001).&nbsp; &nbsp;Conclusion: Complete blood count (CBC) and inflammatory biomarkers, including CRP and ESR, can help clinicians to assess the severity and prognosis of patients with COVID-19.</p> Fathia G Jaat , Mohamed Ebsaim, Nadia M Kermani, Sedik A Abokdeer, Ali S Arebi Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) Sun, 07 Mar 2021 07:45:10 +0000 Supply Chain Integration and Performance of Humanitarian Aid Organizations in Kenya <p>Humanitarian organizations are struggling to obtain the highest possible performance from their supply chains by utilizing and adopting various supply chain designs. This is upon realization that despite the huge chunks of money pumped into humanitarian sector, stringent oversight by donors and expectations from vulnerable populations, humanitarian supply chains still respond in a sluggish, inefficient and poorly coordinated manner to emergencies. The purpose of this study was to establish the influence of supply chain integration on performance of humanitarian aid organizations in Kenya. The study was anchored on the Relational View Theory and the Theory of Performance. Survey research design was employed for this study as it enabled the combination of both qualitative and quantitative research approaches. The study entailed a census survey of all the 330 humanitarian aid organizations carrying out their operations in Kenya with supply chain managers as the unit of observation. Objectively developed questionnaires were used to collect primary data. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics was used aided by SPSS version 24 to facilitate data analysis. The data was presented using a combination of statistical and graphical techniques. The study findings revealed that supply chain integration was positively associated with performance of humanitarian aid organizations. The study recommends that humanitarian aid organizations should improve the use of information technology and computerized structures to integrate supply chain processes and ensure distinguishability of internal activities and procedures.</p> <p>Additionally, humanitarian aid organizations are recommended to boost their supply chain integration by exploring and embracing advanced and emerging technologies such as big data analytics, internet of things, cloud computing, machine learning, artificial intelligence and block chain. A multi-stakeholder approach that involves representatives from public sector, private sector, humanitarian sector, academia, military, beneficiaries and the media should be involved in drafting disaster management legislations and push for disaster preparedness to be enshrined in it. Further, humanitarian aid organizations have and will always play a crucial part in complex emergencies. This study proposed that all humanitarian supply chain actors come together and formulate a common response to complex emergencies, making use of the different competences of different players.</p> Erastus Kiswili Nyile , Dr Ismail Noor Shale, Dr Anthony Osoro Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) Sun, 07 Mar 2021 07:38:20 +0000