Identification and Distribution of Hard Ticks Species (Acari: Ixodidae) on the Northeastern Coast of Libya


  • Fawzeia H. Elmhalli Department of environmental health, public health faculty, Benghazi University, Libya
  • Samira S. Garboui Department of infectious disease, public health faculty, Benghazi University, Libya


Identification, Hard tick species, Northeastern Libya


Hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) are essential blood-feeding ectoparasites. Many species are medically the second-most important arthropod disease vectors for humans. Furthermore, hard ticks are the most prevalent and significant ectoparasites of domestic animals worldwide. To investigate the tick species infesting animals or the ground, seeking a host in northeastern Libya, a study of hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) was carried out between 2006 and 2009, which was then continued at the end of 2017–2018. Two methods were used to collect individual tick samples: direct collection from infected animals (donkeys, goats, sheep, cows, camels, and dogs) and dragging a cloth over the vegetation. The tick species were identified using morphological examinations. A total of 1991 individual ticks were identified in this study from 11 cities and regions in Libya. Overall, eleven tick species were identified: Hyalomma (three species), Boophilus (three species), Rhipicephalus (three species), Amblyomma (one species), and Haemaphysalis (one species). The most common tick species identified were Hyalomma dromedarii and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Al-Marj city (meadow) had the highest number of ticks, followed by Massa city, while Ras Al-Hellal had the fewest number of ticks. This study is one of the few of its kind conducted in our country, and our findings help explain the tick species that parasitize animals. The presence of Haemaphysalis parva  in the Al Jabal Al Akhdar region as a new species indicates a need for more comprehensive studies to inventory the local tick populations.


Levin, M. L. Medical Entomology for Students, 5th Edition. Cambridge University Press, New York, New York, USA, 2014, pp.?224-237.

Said, M.B., Belkahia, H. & Messadi, L., "Anaplasma spp. in North Africa: a review on molecular epidemiology, associated risk factors and genetic characteristics," Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases, vol. 9, pp. 543–555, 2018.

Aouadi, A., Leulmi, H., Boucheikhchoukh, M., Benakhla, A., Raoult, D. & Parola, P., "Molecular evidence of tick-borne hemoprotozoan-parasites (Theileria ovis and Babesia ovis) and bacteria in ticks and blood from small ruminants in northern Algeria," Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, vol. 50, pp. 34–39, 2017.

Walker, A., Bouattour, A., Camicas, J.L., et al., Ticks of Domestic Animals in Africa: A Guide to Identification of Species, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK: Bioscience Reports, 2003.

Okely, M., Anan, R., Gad-Allah, S. & Samy, A.M., "Mapping the environmental suitability of etiological agent and tick vectors of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever," Acta Tropica, vol. 203, p. 105319, 2020.

Estrada-Peña A, Mihalca D, Petney T., Ticks of Europe and North Africa : a Guide to Species Identification, Cham: Springer, 2017.

Hoogstraal, H., & Kaiser, M. N., "Observations on ticks (Ixodoidea) of Libya," Annals of the Entomological Society of America, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 445-457, 1960.

Gabaj, M.M., Awan, M.A.Q. and Beesley, W.N., "A survey of ticks on farm animals in Libya," Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol., vol. 86, no. 5, pp. 543-548, 1992.

Hador, A.B., A survey on ticks in some surrounding farms of Al-Baida, Al-Jabel Al-Akhdar, Libya, M.Sc thesis, Omar AL-Mukhtar University, Al-Baida, Libya, 2015.

Abdulsalam, A. M., Saadawi, W. K., Kharwat, H. I., & Shaibi, T., "Species diversity of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in Tarhuna, Libya," Open Veterinary Journal, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 370-374, 2022.

Rashed, A., EL Naas, A. and EL Maghrbi, A.A., "A study on the ectoparasites of sheep and goat in Libya," in The 7th International Conference on the Future Horizone of Environmental Development in Arab region and Facing the Challenges, pp. 17-20, Ghardaga, Egypt, 2010.

Hosni, M. N., & El Maghrbi, A. A., "Ectoparasites infestation of free-ranging hedgehog (Etelerix algirus) in north western Libya," Open Veterinary Journal, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 12-15, 2014.

Colomba, C., Saporito, L., Polara, V. F., Rubino, R., & Titone, L., "Mediterranean spotted fever: clinical and laboratory characteristics of 415 Sicilian children," BMC infectious diseases, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1-5, 2006.

Mohamed W. S. , Mohammed A. A., Ekhnafer A. M., Ali M.S., "The Relationship between Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae and Ticks in Northeast of Libya," Saudi J Biomed Res, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 18-22, 2021.

Flora of Libya. "Environmental Systems in Libya,": July 2019 [ Nov.15. 2019].

Mejlon, H. A., & Jaenson, T. G., "Seasonal prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes ricinus in different vegetation types in Sweden," Scandinavian journal of infectious diseases, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 449-456, 1993.

Hoogstraal, H and Kaiser, M. N., "The ticks (Ixodoidea) of Egypt: A brief review and keys," The Journal of the Egyptian public health association, vol. 3, pp. 52-83, 1958.

Hoogstraal, H., Wassef, H. Y., and Buttiker, W., "Ticks (Acarina) of Saudi Arabia Fam. Argasidae, Ixodidae," Fauna of Saudi Arabia, vol. 3, pp. 25-110, 1981.

Manilla, G., Acari Ixodidae, Calderini, 1998, pp. 1-280.

Estrada-Pena, A., D'Amico, G., Palomar, A.M. et al., "A comparative test of ixodid tick identification by a network of European researchers," Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, vol. 8, pp. 540–546, 2017.

Perveen, N., Bin Muzaffar, S., & Al-Deeb, M. A., "Population dynamics of Hyalomma dromedarii on camels in the United Arab Emirates," Insects, vol. 11, no. 5, p. 320, 2020.

Lange, J. V., El Tick, D. T. F. B. D., "Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806)(Arachnida: Acari: Ixodidae)," Vet Parasitol, vol. 152, no. 3-4, pp. 173-85, 2008.

Rodriguez, L.L.; Maupin, G.; Ksiazek, T.G.; Rollin, P.E.; Khan, A.L.S.; Schwarz, T.E.; Lofts, R.S.; Smith, J.F.; Noor, A.M.; Peters, C.J.; et al., "Molecular investigation of a multisource outbreak of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever in the United Arab Emirates," Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., vol. 57, pp. 512–518, 1997.

Dessouky, A. G., Manor, E., Merdan, A. I., & Azad, A. F., "Spotted fever rickettsiae in ticks from the northern Sinai Governate, Egypt," The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 546-551, 1992.

Bursali A, Tekin S, Keskin A, Ekici M, Dundar E, "Species diversity of ixodid ticks feeding on humans in Amasya, Turkey: seasonal abundance and presence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus," J Med Entomol, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 85–93, 2011.

Papa A, Kontana A, Tsioka K, Saratsis A, Sotiraki S, "Novel phlebovirus detected in Haemaphysalis parva ticks in a Greek island," Ticks Tick-borne Dis, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 157–160, 2017.

Vatansever, Z., "Haemaphysalis parva (Neumann, 1897)(Figs. 100–102)," Ticks of Europe and North Africa: A guide to species identification, pp. 259-263, 2017.

Garboui, S. S., Elmhalli, F. H., and Grandi, G., "First Report of The Ectoparasite Ticks Haemaphysalis Parva (Neumann, 1897) Collected From Domestic Animals In Libya," Al-Mukhtar Journal of Sciences (In press), 2018.

Google Maps " Libya," : Feb 11, 2024 [Aug.10.2023].




How to Cite

Fawzeia H. Elmhalli, & Samira S. Garboui. (2024). Identification and Distribution of Hard Ticks Species (Acari: Ixodidae) on the Northeastern Coast of Libya. International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR), 73(1), 130–138. Retrieved from