Participatory Epidemiological Assessment of Priority Livestock Diseases, Their Seasonal Occurrence and Impact on Livelihood in Mandera West Sub-County, Mandera County, Kenya
Keywords:Participatory epidemiology, Livelihood, Mandera West
Participatory epidemiology (PE) is a valuable technique for mapping livestock diseases, as it recognizes the indigenous knowledge held by pastoral communities regarding diseases that impact their livelihood and acknowledges the creative capacity of these communities, which can be harnessed to complement scientific disease control and prevention measures. The study aimed to evaluate the priority livestock diseases, their seasonal occurrence, and their impact on the livelihood of communities in Mandera West Sub-County, Mandera County, Kenya. A Cross-sectional study using participatory epidemiological (PE) methods and approaches was conducted with livestock keepers in Mandera west Sub-county from December 2021 to January 2022. Forty group discussions of 10-15 informants involving both men and women were held in 40 randomly selected villages in five administrative wards (Gither, Dandu, Lagsure, Didkuro and Takaba). Data collection tools used in PE study consisted of semi-structured interviews, simple ranking, pair-wise ranking, proportional piling, matrix scoring, disease impact matrix scoring (DIMs) and seasonal calendars. Livestock species were ranked by informants based on economic value to their livelihood.
The order was camel, goats, cattle, sheep, donkey, and poultry. The top five priority livestock diseases were Camel Pox, Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP), Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR), Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP), and Enterotoxaemia. Disease Impact Matrix Scoring (DIMs) revealed CCPP as having the highest livelihood impact at 35.4%, followed by PPR (32.8%), CBPP (30.6%), and trypanosomiasis (28.1%). Proportional pilling indicated Black Quarter (BQ), Enterotoxaemia, CCPP, and Camel Pox had highest case fatalities (CF) of 69.8%, 55.9%, 45.5%, and 37.2% respectively. Informants identified four main seasons: Bira (January to March, dry season), Gan (April to June, long rain), Atholes (July to September, cold season), and Agay (October to December, short rain). Trypanosomiasis and mange were prevalent during the dry season, while CBPP, PPR, and CCPP were high in the cold season. Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and Sheep and Goat Pox (SGP) occurred frequently during the long rain, while Camel Pox and Haemorrhagic Septicemia (H.S) tended to occur during the short rain. In conclusion, the PE study identified a strong consensus among key informants in ranking priority livestock diseases, such as Camel Pox, CCPP, PPR, CBPP, and Enterotoxaemia. CCPP, PPR, CBPP, and trypanosomiasis had the most significant impact on community livelihoods. The study underscores the value of community involvement in disease control, utilizing indigenous knowledge.
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