Hazardous Nature of Native Chalk (Calabash chalk)


  • Grace Otobo Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria
  • Endurance Fegor Isoje Department of Chemistry, Delta State University of Science and Technology Ozoro
  • Augustina Ufuoma Igbuku Department of Chemistry, Delta State University of Science and Technology Ozoro


Native Chalk, Calabash Chalk, quantitative, Gravimetric


Native Chalk found as white pasty or buff lime stone naturally very close to the stream or at the bank of the river and widely eaten by pregnant women as well as traditional worshipper in making medicine was investigated in this research work .The chalk samples was collected from Atani in Anambra state, Benin in Edo state, Umutu in Delta state and Port-Harcourt in Rivers state, Nigeria West Africa.

Quantitatively, mineral elements such as Iron Calcium, Aluminum, Silicon, Bicarbonate and Sulphate are found to be present in native (Calabash Chalk). Gravimetrically, the samples are found to contain the metal such as lead above the permissive level of the World Health Organization standard for water with lead ranging from 0.01mg/ l to 0.0.40mg/l , while iron is 38mg/l to 76mg/l , calcium and 27mg/l to63.3mg/l minimum and maximum desirable level respectively. The study reveals that the native chalk which occurs naturally in different environment has concentration of lead that is known for its hazardous effect to life is present above desirable level. This implies that Native chalk could be hazardous if constantly eaten.


. National agency of Food, Drug Administration and Control(NAFDAC (2010) Abuja “Calabash Chalk”. http/www nafdac.nigeria.org/alerts.html.

. A.N. Pharmboy, (2010) “African Morning Sickness Remedy inTexas” available http://scienceblogs. Com / terrasig 2010/01/African morning sickness Remed. php#comments. 2186178.

. J.M. Hunter, “Geography in Africa and in United State: A culture Nutrition Hypothesis. Geography” rev.63pp.170-195, 1973.

. J.L. Yeitz, et.al. “Prevalence of Balisascaris Procyonis in raccon (procyonlofor) in Porland, Oregon, USA. J.Wild. Dis; 45, pp.14-18[pub. Med Google scholar], 2009

. J.R. Dean, et.al., “Characterization and analysis of Persistent Organic Pollutant and major, Minor and trace element in Calabash chalk” Chemosphere .57, pp.21-25 [pub. Med Google Scholar] , 2004.

. F. Smith William, The principles of Material Science, 2nd Edition. New York by Graw-Hill Publishing Company, pp590. 1990.

. M.B Ekong et.al., Evaluation of calabash chalk effect on fermon bone in Wistar Rats: A pilot study. Int. J. Basic Med. Res.2(2), pp107-110, 2012.

. J. D. Hanilton and E.D. Oflaherty ,” Effects of lead exposure on skeletal development in rats. Fundam”. Appl. Toxicology 22, pp.594-604[pub. Med Google scholar] 1994

. A.O Akpantah et.al., “The Effect of Calabash Chalk on some Hematological parameters in Female Adult Wister rats”. Jurk to Haematol 27(3), pp.177-181, 2010.

. J.S. Aprioku,and E.M. Ogwo-Ude, “Gestational toxicity of calabash chalk (Nzu) in Wister Rat,” .Int.J.applied Basic Med. Res.8(1) pp.249-252, 2018

. L. Gangoso, (2009) “ long Term Effects of Lead Poisoning on Bone Mineralization in Vulture, National institute of Health, Google scholar”. http//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

. M.J. Ronis et.al.,(2001) “Skeletal Effect of developmental lead exposure in rats National institute of Health”, Google scholar. http//pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov




How to Cite

Otobo, G., Endurance Fegor Isoje, & Augustina Ufuoma Igbuku. (2023). Hazardous Nature of Native Chalk (Calabash chalk). International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR), 71(1), 31–36. Retrieved from https://gssrr.org/index.php/JournalOfBasicAndApplied/article/view/16177