Natural Radioactivity Levels and Radiogenic Heat Production in River Sediments from Gulu and Amuru Districts, Northern Uganda
Keywords:Activity Concentrations, Radioelement Concentrations, Radiogenic Heat Production, Sediments
The activity concentrations (AC) of 238U, 232Th and 40K in sediments from Gulu and Amuru districts, Uganda were determined using NaI(Tl) detector at Physics Department, Makerere University, Kampala to obtain; radioelement concentrations (RC), radiogenic heat production (RHP) and associated heat flow (Hf). The AC varied from (36.1 ± 2.3 - 261.2 ± 15.3) for 238U, (97.4 ± 13.5 - 334.2 ± 36.6) for 232Th, and (47.5 ± 3.9 - 1442.3 ± 58.9) Bq kg-1 for 40K, with averages of 89.6 ± 6.3, 168.6 ± 17.9, and 275.4 ± 14.0 Bq kg-1, respectively, above the world limits of 35, 30, and 400 Bq kg-1, for 238U, 232Th and 40K. The RC varied from (2.9 ± 0.2 - 20.8 ± 1.2) ppm for 238U, (23.9 ± 3.3 - 82.0 ± 9.2) ppm for 232Th, and (0.2 ± 0.01 - 3.2 ± 0.1) % for 40K, with averages of 7.1 ± 0.5 ppm, 41.3 ± 4.3 ppm, and 1.1 ± 0.05%, respectively. The 238U and 232Th averages were above the Earth’s crust values of 3 ppm and 12 ppm, respectively. The 40K average is below the Earth’s crust value of 2.33%. The RHP varied from (2.5 ± 0.6 - 10.2 ± 2.6) µW m-3 with an average of 4.5 ± 1.1 µW m-3, above the world average of 4µW m-3. High and moderate RHP, each account for 50% of the samples. The overall RHP mainly depended on 232Th amounts, with 60% contribution. However, an increase in the AC of 238U, 232Th and 40K reflected the integrated effect of RHP. The Hf varied from (19.6 ± 1.0 - 80.0 ± 4.0) mW m-2 with an average of 35.3 ± 1.8 mW m-2. The high RHP and Hf values indicates feasibility for geothermal exploration. This calls for further studies to validate these findings.
S. Issa, M. Uosif, R. Elsaman. (2013, Mar.). “Gamma radioactivity measurements in Nile River sediment samples.” Turkish Journal of Engineering & Environmental Sciences. [Online]37, pp.109 – 122. Available: https://doi.org/10.3906/muh-1207-21 [Nov. 30, 2022].
M.A. Rafat. (2015, Feb.). “Radioactivity Levels in Some Sediments and Water Samples from Qarun Lake by Low–Level Gamma Spectrometry.” International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). [Online] 4(2), pp. 619 – 625. Available: https://www.ijsr.net/archive/v4i2/SUB151080.pdf [Nov. 30, 2022].
F.O. Ugbede, A.F. (2019, Apr.). “Akpolile, Determination of Specific Activity of 238U, 232Th and 40K and Radiological Hazard Assessment of Tuomo River Sediments in Burutu, Delta State, Nigeria.” J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. [Online] 23(4). pp.727-733. Available: https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jasem.v23i4.24 [Nov. 30, 2022].
R. Kritsananuwat, S. K. Sahoo, M. Fukushi, K. Pangza, S. Chanyotha. (2014, Jul.). “Radiological risk assessment of 238U, 232Th and 40K in Thailand coastal sediments at selected areas proposed for nuclear power plant sites.” Journal of radio analytical and nuclear chemistry. [Online] 7. pp.1-10. Available: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-014-3376-7 [Nov. 30, 2022].
F. Caridi, M. Di Bella, G. Sabatino, G. Belmusto, M.R. Fede, D. Romano, F. Italiano, A.F. Mottese. (2021, Feb.). “Assessment of Natural Radioactivity and Radiological Risks in River Sediments from Calabria (Southern Italy).” Appl. Sci.[Online] 11. pp.1729. Available: https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041729 [Nov. 30, 2022].
A. T. Abu, A. Abbady, S. Harb. (2019, Jan.). “Assessment of Natural Radioactivity Level in Shore Sediment Samples from Nasser Lake at Aswan, Egypt.” International Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Science (IJBES). [Online] 6(1). pp.1 – 11, 2019. Available: https://doi.org/10.5121/ijbes.2019.6101 [Nov. 30, 2022].
T. S. Masinde. (2022, Feb.). “Radiological Impact Assessment of the Bottom Sediment Samples at Port Victoria Shoreline, Kenya.” International Journal of Applied Science and Research. [Online] 5(1). pp. 62 – 70. Available: https://www.ijasr.org/paper/IJASR0042621.pdf [Nov. 30, 2022].
R. Keser, F. G. Korkmaz, I. Alp, N.T. Okumu?o?lu. (2013, Jul.). “Determination of radioactivity levels and hazards of sediment and rock samples in ?kizdere and Kaptanpa?a Valley, Turkey.” International Journal of Radiat. Research. [Online] 11(3). pp.155-165. Available: https://www.ijrr.com/article-1-1058-en.pdf [Nov. 30, 2022].
A.N. Laith, T.A. Sheamaa, Y.W. Taha, M. Howaida. (2022, Oct.). “Radiogenic heat production from natural radionuclides in sediments of the Tigris river in Mosul City, Iraq.” Int. J. Nuclear Energy Science and Technology. [Online]15(3/4). pp. 302 – 316. Available: https://doi.org/10.1504/IJNEST.2022.126067 [Dec. 11, 2022].
B. Oruru, M. Todo and A. Kisolo. (2020, Sept.). “Background Radiations and Radon Concentrations in the Dormitories of Secondary Schools in Otuke District, Uganda.” J. Rad. Nucl. Appl. [Online] 5(3). pp. 211-218. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.18576/jrna/050308 [Dec. 30, 2022].
S. Murugesan and S. Ravichandran. (2023, Jan.). “Radioactive heat production rate and excess lifetime cancer risk of sand from two major rivers in India – A comparative study.” International Journal of Radiation Research. [Online] 21(1). pp.117 – 124. Available: https://doi.org/10.52547/ijrr.21.1.16 [Jan. 30, 2023].
V. Sathish, A. Chandrasekaran, S. Manigandan, A. Tamilarasi, V. Thangam. (2022 Feb.). “Assessment of natural radiation hazards and function of heat production rate in lake sediments of Puliyanthangal Lake surrounding the Ranipet industrial area, Tamil Nadu.” Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry. [Online] 331. pp.1495–1505, 2022. Available: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-022-08207-2 [Jan. 22, 2023].
S. Murugesan, S. Mullainathan, V. Ramasamy and V. Meenakshisundaram. (2016, May). “Environmental radioactivity, magnetic measurements and mineral analysis of major South Indian river sediments.” J. Mater. Environ. Sci. [Online] 7(7). pp. 2375 – 2388. Available: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/303840881 [Nov. 30, 2022].
O.A. Oyebanjo, E.O. Joshua, and N.N. Jibiri. (2012, Nov.). “Natural Radionuclides and Hazards of Sediment Samples Collected from Osun River in Southwestern Nigeria.” The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology. [Online] 13(2). pp. 391 – 396. Available: https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/ [Aug. 23, 2016].
A.M. Asere and S.O. Sedara. (2020, Aug.). “Determination of Natural Radioactivity Concentration and Radiogenic Heat Production in Selected Quarry Sites in Ondo State, Nigeria.” NIPES Journal of Science and Technology Research. [Online] 2(3). pp. 256 – 271. Available: https://doi.org/10.37933/nipes/2.3.2020.26 [Dec. 11, 2022].
A. El-Taher & G.E. A. Adel. (2012, Apr.). “Natural Radioactivity levels and associated radiation hazards in Nile river sediments from Aswan to El-Minia, Upper Egypt.” Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics. [Online] 50: 224 – 230. https://nopr.niscpr.res.in/handle/123456789/13776 [Nov. 26, 2017].
B. Ghania, B. Fatima, R. Mourad. (2018, Mar.). “Levels and effects of natural radionuclides in sediment banks of Rhumel River (Northeast Algeria).” Cumhuriyet Sci. J. [Online] 39(2). pp. 349-356. http://dx.doi.org/10.17776/csj.360133 [Nov. 30, 2022].
C.P. Ononugbo, G.O. Avwiri, C.A. Ogan. (2016, Jun.). “Natural Radioactivity Measurement and Evaluation of Radiological Hazards in Sediment of Imo River, In Rivers State, Nigeria by Gamma Ray Spectrometry.” IOSR Journal of Applied Physics (IOSR-JAP). [Online] 8(3). pp. 75 – 83. https://doi.org/10.9790/4861-0803017583 [Nov. 30, 2022].
L. Rybach. Determination of heat production rate: Handbook of Terrestrial Heat Flow Density Determination. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1988, pp.125–142.
S. Biira, A. W. Kisolo and F. M. D’ujanga. (2014, Nov.). “Concentration levels of radon in mines, industries and dwellings in selected areas of Tororo and Busia districts, Eastern Uganda.” Advances in Applied Science Research. [Online] 5(6). pp.31- 44. Available: https://www.pelagiaresearchlibrary.com [May 4, 2016].
M.M. Ojara., and J.P. Odongkara. "Gulu District Local Government Statistical Abstract 2012/2013." Internet: www.unfpa.org/../170390185.pdf. Aug. 27. 2013 [May.14.2016].
A.B. Westerhof., P. Härmä., E. Isabirye., E. Katto., T. Koistinen., E. Kuosmanen., T. Lehto., M. I. Lehtonen., H. Mäkitie., T. Manninen., I. Mänttäri., Y. Pekkala., J. Pokki., K. Saalmann, & P. Virransalo. "Geology and geodynamic development of Uganda with explanation of the 1:1,000,000 – scale geological map." Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper 55 Internet: www.gtk.fi, Jun. 23, 2014 [Apr.2, 2016].
S. Adam. "Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) Visualizer. Do it yourself mapping. Portland, Oregon, USA." Internet: http://www.gpsvisualizer.com/ [Apr.15, 2017].
E.K. Atibu, J.M. Oliveira, M. Malta, M. Santos, C.K. Mulaji, P.T. Mpiana, & F.P. Carvalho. (2021, Jul.). “Assessment of Natural Radioactivity in Rivers Sediment and Soil from the Copper Belt Artisanal Mining Region, Democratic Republic of the Congo.” Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection. [Online] 9. pp. 1-20. Available: https://doi.org/10.4236/gep.2021.97001 [Nov. 30, 2022].
V. Ramasamy, G. Suresh, V. Meenakshisundaram and V. Gajendran. (2009, Oct.). “Characterization of Minerals and Naturally Occurring Radionuclides in River Sediments.” Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology. [Online]1(3). pp. 140-144. Available: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/216656959 [Nov. 26, 2017].
V. Ramasamy, G. Suresh, V. Meenakshisundaram and V. Gajendran. (2009, Jan.). “Evaluation of Natural Radionuclide Content in River Sediments and Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk Due to Gamma Radioactivity.” Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences. [Online]1(1). pp. 6-10. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1687850714000661 [Nov. 30, 2022].
P. Reza, G. Rouhollah, R.Z. Mohamad, A. Mahdi. (2015, Feb.). “Radioactivity Concentration in Sediment and Water Samples of Hot Springs in Mahallat and Soil Samples of Their Neighboring Environs.” Environmental Studies of Persian Gulf. [Online] 2(1). pp. 24 – 31. Available: https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/18/3/920 [Aug. 23, 2016].
A. N. Jameel. (2022, Jan.). “Radiological Risk Assessment and Radioactivity Concentration in sediment of Tigris River of the Medical City/Bab Al Muadham.” Ibn Al Haitham Journal for Pure and Applied Science. [Online] 3(1). pp. 28 – 38. Available: https://doi.org/10.30526/35.1.2796 [Jan. 22, 2023].
M.O. Isinkaye, I.P. Farai. (2008, June.). “Activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides in sediments of surface – water dams in southwest Nigeria – a baseline survey.” Radioprotection. [Online] 43(4). pp. 533 – 545. Available: https://doi.org/10.1051/radiopro:2008029 [Nov. 30, 2022].
M. A. M. Uosif, H. Madkour, I. Shams, T. Mahmoud, and M.Z. Hesham. (2016, Jan.). “Natural Radionuclides and Heavy Metals Concentration of Marine Sediments in Quseir City and Surrounding Areas, Red Sea Coast-Egypt.” International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology. [Online] 86. pp. 6 – 30. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijast.2016.86.02 [Nov. 30, 2022].
D.O. Jegede, I.A. Gbadamosi, O.O. Banjoko, J.A. Adeyoye, M.R. Gbadamosi, A.L. Ogunneye, T.E. Bakare, O.J. Oyewola. (2019, Jan.). “Radiometric and Spatial distribution of natural radionuclides concentrations and excessive lifetime cancer risks in sediments from selected rivers in llobi and Erinja communities, Southwest, Nigeria.” Nigerian Research Journal of Chemical Sciences. [Online] 6. pp. 58 – 78. Available: http://www.unn.edu.ng/nigerian-research-journal-of-chemical-sciences/ [Jan. 22, 2023].
L. Sindani, M. N. Waswa, F. Maingi and C. K. Wanyama. (2022, Feb.). “Measurement of Radiological Parameters in Harvested Sand in Bungoma County Rivers, Kenya.” Journal of Engineering and Technology for Industrial Applications. [Online] 8(33). pp. 21-25. Available: https://doi.org/10.5935/jetia.v8i33.794 [Jan. 22, 2023].
A. Olanya, D. Okello, B. Oruru and A. Kisolo. (2022, Dec.). “The Primordial Radionuclides Activity Concentrations and Associated Minerals in Rocks from Selected Quarries in Northern Uganda.” International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). [Online] 66(1). pp. 45-65. Available: http://gssrr.org/index.php?journal=JournalOfBasicAandApplied [Dec. 30, 2022].
B.O. Botwe, A. Schirone, I. Delbono, M. Barsanti, R. Delfanti, P. Kelderman, E. Nyarko, P.N. L. Lens. (2016, Dec.). “Radioactivity concentrations and their radiological signi?cance in sediments of the Tema Harbour (Greater Accra, Ghana).” Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences. [Online] 30. pp. 1 – 9. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrras.2016.12.002 [Jan. 1, 2023].
A. M. Hussein. (2018, Sept.). “Natural Radioactivity and Radon Exhalation in the Sediment River Used in Sulaymaniyah Governorate, Iraq, Dwellings.” The Scientific Journal of Koya University. [Online] 6(2). pp. 7 – 12. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.14500/aro.10381 [Jan. 22, 2023].
S. A. Sokari, O. L. Gbarato and C. P. Ononugbo. (2022, Jan.). “Radiogenic Heat Production Due to Natural Radionuclides in Soil and Sediments of Coastal Communities of Okrika Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria.” Asian Journal of Research and Reviews in Physics. [Online] 6(1). pp.14-20. https://doi.org/10.9734/AJR2P/2022/v6i130174 [Jan. 20, 2023].
M.B. S. Saif Eldin, A.K. Sam, A.A. O. Alfatih, S. Isam, and A.A. K. Mohammed. (2009, Nov.). “Distribution of 238U, 232Th, 40Kand 137Cs in River Nile Sediments, Khartoum, Sudan.” Phil. Nat. [Online]1(1). pp.109 – 120. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/26619599. [Nov. 26, 2017].
S. S. Omosule and A. Adelowo. (2015, Jan.). “Assessment of Radiogenic Heat Production in Soil Samples around Ife Steel Rolling Mill Site in Southwestern Nigeria.” International Journal of Innovation and Scientific Research. [Online] 13(1). pp. 249-256. http://www.ijisr.issr-journals.org/ [Jan. 21, 2023].
A. I. C. Okeyode. (2012, Dec.). “Radiogenic Heat Production Due to Natural Radionuclides in the Sediments of Ogun River, Nigeria.” Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences. [Online] 2(10). pp.196 – 207. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/329454462 [Jan. 20, 2023].
S. Murugesan, S. Mullainathan, V. Ramasamy, V. Meenakshisundaram. (2011, Mar.). “Radioactivity and radiation hazard assessment of Cauvery River, Tamilnadu, India.” Iran. J. Radiat. Res. [Online] 8(4).pp. 211- 222. http://ijrr.com/article-1-683-en.pdf [Nov. 26, 2017].
D.L.Turcotte and G. Schubert (1997, Jul. 13). Geodynamics (2nd edition). [Online]. Available: www.abebooks.co.uk/ [Mar. 5, 2023].
UNSCEAR. "Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation." United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, Report to the General Assembly, with Scientific Annexes. Sales No. E.00.IX.3, ISBN: 92-1-142238, Vol 1. New York, 2000.
O.A. EThinola, E.O. Joshua, S.A. Opeloye and J.A. Ademola. (2005, Apr.). “Radiogenic Heat Production in the Cretaceous Sediments of Yola Arm of Nigeria Benue Trough: Implications for Thermal History and Hydrocarbon Generation.” Journal of Applied Sciences. [Online] 5(4). pp. 696 – 701. Available: http://ansinet.com [Dec. 18, 2022].
T.A Adagunodo, O.G. Bayowa, M.R. Usikalu, A.I. Ojoawo. (2019, Jul.). “Radiogenic heat production in the Coastal Plain Sands of Ipokia, Dahomey Basin, Nigeria.” MethodsX. [Online] 6. pp. 1608 – 1616. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2019.07.006 [Jan. 20, 2023].
B.A. Al-Mur, A. Gad. (2022, Aug.). “Radiation Hazard from Natural Radioactivity in the Marine Sediment of Jeddah Coast, Red Sea, Saudi Arabia.” J. Mar. Sci. Eng. [Online] 10: 1145. https://www.mdpi.com/2077-1312/10/8/1145/pdf [Nov. 30, 2022].
C.S Kaliprasad and Y. Narayana. (2018, Mar.). “Distribution of natural radionuclides and radon concentration in the riverine environs of Cauvery, South India.” Journal of Water and Health. [Online] 16(3). 476 – 486. http://iwaponline.com/jwh/article-pdf/16/3/476/245976/jwh0160476.pdf [Jan. 22, 2023].
V. Ramasamy, G. Suresh, R. Venkatachalapathy, V. Ponnusamy and V. Meenakshisundaram. (2010, June.). “Magnetic Susceptibility and Radiological Hazardous Nature of the River Sediments — Spectroscopical Approach.” ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA A. [Online] 118(4). pp. 701 – 711. http://przyrbwn.icm.edu.pl/APP/PDF/118/a118z4p31.pdf [Jan. 22, 2023].
J. E. Oluwagbemi and O. M. Oluwatoyin. (2016, Feb.). “Determination of Heavy Minerals and Natural Radionuclides in Beach Sediments from Badagry, Southwestern Nigeria.” Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering. [Online] 6(2). pp.131 – 140. http://www.scienpress.com/download.asp?ID=1739 [Jun. 21, 2023].
B. Satyanarayan, K. S. Sunil, S. Venkatesan, V. Balasubramanian, R. Prasanta. (2019, Jun.). “Application of multivariate technique to evaluate spatial distribution of natural radionuclides along Tamil Nadu coastline, east coast of India.” SN Applied Sciences. [Online] 1:689. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42452-019-0716-9 [Jan. 22, 2023].
M. Suresh Gandhi, R. Ravisankar, S. Sivakumar, Y. Raghu, D. A. Prem. (2013, Sep.). “Gamma-ray Spectrometric Analysis of Coastal Sediment Samples Along North East Coast of Tamilnadu.” An International Science Journal. [Online] 4(2). pp. 21-28. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/263426764 [Aug. 23, 2016].
M. Suresh Gandhi, R. Ravisankar, A. Rajalakshmi, S. Sivakumar, A. Chandrasekaran, D. Pream Anand. (2014, Oct.). “Measurements of natural gamma radiation in beach sediments of north east coast of Tamilnadu, India by gamma ray spectrometry with multivariate statistical approach.” Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences. [Online] 7: 7 – 17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrras.2013.11.001 [Nov. 30, 2022].
E. S. Joel, M. Omeje, O. C. Olawole, G. A. Adeyemi, A. Akinpelu, Z. Embong & M. A. Saeed. (2021, Sep.). “In?situ assessment of natural terrestrial?radioactivity from Uranium?238 (238U), Thorium?232 (232Th) and Potassium?40 (40K) in coastal urban?environment and its possible health implications.” Scientific Reports natureportfolio. [Online] 11. pp.17555. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-96516-z [Jan. 21, 2023].
A.O. Aderonke, S.O. Adeniyi, and F.A. Olarike. (2021, Aug.). “Natural radionuclides and ions concentrations in water and sediments around iron-smelting industry in Ikirun, Osun-State, Nigeria.” Journal of Public Health and Diseases. [Online] 4(4). pp. 38 – 46. https://doi.org/10.31248/JPHD2021.103 [Nov. 30, 2022].
M. Elena, P. Roman, B. Pavel, B. Sergey. (2021, Feb.). “Concentrations of Natural Radionuclides (40K, 226Ra, 232Th) at the Potash Salts Deposit.” Journal of Ecological Engineering. [Online] 22(3). pp. 179–187. https://doi.org/10.12911/22998993/132544 [Jan. 21, 2023].
M.I. Khalil, R. K. Majumder, M.Z. Kabir, F. Deeba, M.N. Khan, M.I. Ali MI. (2016, Dec.). “Assessment of natural radioactivity levels and identification of minerals in Brahmaputra (Jamuna) river sand and sediment, Bangladesh.” Radiat Prot Environ. [Online] 39. pp. 204-11. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/313660297 [Jan. 22, 2023].
A.O. Sylvanus, N.I.K. Aina, Z. Munyaradzi, E. Emmanuel, H.H. Roswita, M.T. Bismark. (2022, Sep.). “Assessment of Radioactivity levels in shore sediments along the coastline of the Orange River, Oranjemund, Namibia.” Heliyon. [Online] 8. pp. 1 – 7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e1057 [Nov. 30, 2022].
H. M. A. Khalid, K. A. N. Salam, A. A. S. Zahraa. (2015, Jun.). “Natural Radionuclides and Hazards in Water and Sediment Samples of Tigris River in Al- Amara city - Maysan - Iraq.” Advances in Physics Theories and Applications. [Online] 44. pp. 117 – 122. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/348729125 [ Jan. 22, 2023].
P. Mehnati, A. Jomehzadeh, V. Doostmohammadi. (2022, Jan.). “Measurement of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs concentrations in sediment samples and determination of annual effective dose due to these radionuclides in vicinity of hot springs in Kerman Province.” International Journal of Radiation Research. [Online] 20(1). pp. 223-228. https://doi.org/10.52547/ijrr.20.1.34 [Nov. 30, 2022].
H. T. Abba, S. Umar, D. J. Adeyemo, A. S. Aliyu, A. Ismaila, and M. A. Saleh. (2017, Dec.). “NORM distribution in coastal soils and sediments of river Yobe, North-Eastern Nigeria: An Evaluation of the Potential Radiological Hazards.” Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. [Online] 10(2). pp. 190 – 197. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bajopas.v10i2.32 [Jan. 22, 2023].
Y. Sabina, S.B. Bijoy, U.K. Mayeen, K. Masud, M. R. Abdur, S.F.S. Abdul, H. Ahmed, N. Bijan, D.A. Bradley. (2018, Feb.). “The presence of radioactive materials in soil, sand and sediment samples of Potenga sea beach area, Chittagong, Bangladesh: Geological characteristics and environmental implication.” Results in Physics. [Online] 8. pp. 1268–1274. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rinp.2018.02.013 [Jan. 20, 2023].
E.B. Faweya. (2014, Nov.). “Determination of Radioactivity Levels and Hazard of Water and Sediment Samples in Various Gold Mining Pits at Itagunmodi Ilesha Nigeria.” European Journal of Academic Essays. [Online] 1(10). pp. 1-8. https://oaji.net/articles/2017/3667-1483553578.pdf [ Nov. 30, 2022].
A. B. Ramadan, M. A. Hosnia, M. T. Shadia, M. A. E. H. Thanaa, H. E. Ahmed. (2018, Apr.). “Evaluation of Natural Radioactivity and Physico-Chemical Characteristics along El-Salam Canal, Egypt.” International Journal of Engineering Science Invention (IJESI). [Online] 7(4). pp. 51 – 63. https://www.ijesi.org [Nov. 30, 2022].
M. Tholkappian, A. Chandrasekaran, D. Ganesh, J.Chandramohan, N. Harikrishnan and R. Ravisankar. (2018, Sep.). “Determination of Radioactivity Levels and Radiation Hazards in Coastal Sediment Samples of Chennai Coast, Tamilnadu, India using Gamma Ray Spectrometry with Statistical Approach.” J. Rad. Nucl. Appl.[Online] 3(3). pp. 171-182. http://www.naturalspublishing.com/Journals.asp [Jan. 22, 2023].
A. Bubu and C. P. Ononugbo. (2018, Feb.). “Radiogenic Heat Production Due to Natural Radionuclides in the Sediments of Bonny River, Nigeria.” Journal of Scientific Research & Reports. [Online] 17(6). pp. 1 – 9. https://doi.org/10.9734/JSRR/2017/39159 [Jan. 8, 2023].
K.A. Salako, A. A. Adetona, A. A. Rafiu, U.D. Alahassan, A. Aliyu, and T. Adewumi. (2019, May). “Assessment of Geothermal Potential of Parts of Middle Benue Trough, North-East Nigeria.” Journal of the Earth and Space Physics. [Online] 45(4). pp. 27- 42. https://doi.org/10.22059/jesphys.2019.260257.1007017 [Jan. 2, 2023].
A.B. Katumwehe, M.G. Abdelsalam, E.A. Atekwana, D.A. Lao-Davila. (2015, May). “The Role of Pre-existing Precambrian Structures and Thermal Anomaly in Rift Initiation and Evolution: The Albertine and Rhino Grabens, Uganda.” Tectonophysics. [Online] 646(1). pp. 117 – 129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2015.01.022 [Aug. 10, 2023].
S. Ballard, H.N. Pollack, and N.J. Skinner (1987). “Terrestrial heat flow in Botswana and Namibia.” Journal of Geophysical Research. 92: pp. 6291–6300.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the following terms.