The Impact of Growth Hormone Treatment on Lipid Profile in Pediatric Growth-Hormone Deficiency

  • Mirela E Iancu Research Department, ART HOPE SRL, Bucharest, Romania, Endocrinology Department, Elias Emergency Hospital, Bucharest, Romania
  • Alice I Albu Endocrinology Department, Elias Emergency Hospital, Bucharest, Romania, Carol Davila' University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania
  • Dragoș N Albu Carol Davila' University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania, Medlife, Bucharest, Romania
Keywords: growth hormone, lipid profile, pediatric deficiency


The lipid metabolism is not a stand-alone entity, and the hormonal involvement in this system appears of great importance. Growth hormone (GH) has a central role among the endocrine mediators, as demonstrated by studies in GH-deficient individuals. Atherogenic lipid profile is frequently described in these patients, and treatment intervention may help normalize them. Studies have revealed that gender and genetic polymorphism in genes involved in the growth process and metabolism may explain the variability of treatment responses. Until recently, hormonal substitution was used solely to improve final adult height, but there are indications that long-term treatment is advised and necessary to maintain adequate functionality of intermediary metabolism and protect from early cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality.


Mc Auley MT and Mooney KM, "Lipid metabolism and hormonal interactions: impact on cardiovascular disease and healthy ageing," Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 357-367, 2014.

Palmeiro CR, Anand R, Dardi IK, Balasubramaniyam N, Schwarcz MD and Weiss IA, "Growth hormone and the cardiovascular system," Cardiol Rev, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 197-207, 2012.

Møller N, Gjedsted J, Gormsen L, Fuglsang J and Djurhuus C, "Effects of growth hormone on lipid metabolism in humans," Growth Horm IGF Res, vol. Suppl A, pp. S18-21, 2003.

Moller N, Vendelbo MH, Kampmann U, Christensen B, Madsen M, Norrelund H and Jorgensen JO, "Growth hormone and protein metabolism," Clin Nutr, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 597-603, 2009.

Møller N and Jørgensen JO, "Effects of growth hormone on glucose, lipid, and protein metabolism in human subjects," Endocr Rev, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 152-77, 2009.

Lind S, Rudling M, Ericsson S, Olivecrona H, Eriksson M, Borgström B, Eggertsen G, Berglund L and Angelin B, "Growth hormone induces low-density lipoprotein clearance but not bile acid synthesis in humans," Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 349-56, 2004.

Nam SY and Marcus C, "Growth hormone and adipocyte function in obesity," Horm Res, vol. 53, no. Suppl 1, pp. 87-97, 2000.

Stanley TL and Grinspoon SK, "Effects of growth hormone-releasing hormone on visceral fat, metabolic, and cardiovascular indices in human studies," Growth Horm IGF Re, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 59-65, 2015.

Maison P, Balkau B, Souberbielle JC, Cunin P, Vol S, Macquin-Mavier I and Eschwège E, "Evidence for distinct effects of GH and IGF-I in the metabolic syndrome," Diabet Med, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 1012-8, 2007.

Lombardi G, Di Somma C, Grasso LF, Savanelli MC, Colao A and Pivonello R, "The cardiovascular system in growth hormone excess and growth hormone deficiency," J Endocrinol Invest, vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 1021-9, 2012.

Rothermel J and Reinehr T, "Metabolic alterations in paediatric GH deficiency," Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 757-770, 2016.

Salerno M, Esposito V, Farina V, Radetti G, Umbaldo A, Capalbo D, Spinelli L, Muzica S, Lombardi G and Colao A, "Improvement of cardiac performance and cardiovascular risk factors in children with GH deficiency after two years of GH replacement therapy: an observational, open, prospective, case-control study," J Clin Endocrinol Metab, vol. 91, no. 4, pp. 1288-95, 2006.

De Marco S, Marcovecchio ML, Caniglia D, De Leonibus C, Chiarelli F and Mohn A, "Circulating asymmetric dimethylarginine and lipid profile in pre-pubertal children with growth hormone deficiency: effect of 12-month growth hormone replacement therapy," Growth Horm IGF Res, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 216-20, 2014.

Lanes R, Gunczler P, Lopez E, Asia S, Villaroel O and Revel-Chion R, "Cardiac mass and function, carotid artery intima-media thickness, and lipoprotein levels in growth hormone-deficient adolescents," J Clin Endocrinol Metab, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 1061-5, 2001.

Oh NK, Song YM, Kim SH and Park MJ, "Short Stature is Associated with Increased Risk of Dyslipidemia in Korean Adolescents and Adults," Sci Rep, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 14090, 2019.

Nelson CP, Hamby SE, Saleheen D, Hopewell JC, Zeng L, Assumes TL and et al., "Genetically determined height and coronary artery disease," N Engl J Med, vol. 372, no. 17, pp. 1608-18, 2015.

Barbosa EJ, Glad CA, Nilsson AG, Filipsson Nyström H, Svensson PA, Vinotti I, Bengtsson BÅ, Nilsson S, Boguszewski CL and Johannsson G, "Genotypes associated with lipid metabolism contribute to differences in serum lipid profile of GH-deficient adults before and after GH replacement therapy," Eur J Endocrinol, vol. 167, no. 3, pp. 353-62, 2012.

Ihara K, Inuo M, Kuromaru R, Miyako K, Kohno H, Kinukawa N and Hara T, "The Leu544Ile polymorphism of the growth hormone receptor gene affects the serum cholesterol levels during GH treatment in children with GH deficiency," Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 212-7, 2007.

Makimura M, Ihara K, Kojima-Ishii K, Nozaki T, Ohkubo K, Kohno H, Kishimoto J and Hara T, "The signal transducer and activator of transcription 5B gene polymorphism contributes to the cholesterol metabolism in Japanese children with a growth hormone deficiency," Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), vol. 74, no. 5, pp. 611-7, 2011.

Yang S, Ke X, Liang H, Li R and Zhu H, "Case Report: A Clinical and Genetic Analysis of Childhood Growth Hormone Deficiency With Familial Hypercholesterolemia," Front Endocrinol (Lausanne), vol. 12, p. 691490, 2021.

Foster C, Burton A, Scholl J, Scott ML, Gunter V and McCormick K, "Lipid patterns in treated growth hormone deficient children vs short stature controls," J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab, vol. 27, no. 9-10, pp. 909-14, 2014.

Kuromaru R, Kohno H, Ueyama N, Hassan HM, Honda S and Hara T, "Long-term prospective study of body composition and lipid profiles during and after growth hormone (GH) treatment in children with GH deficiency: gender-specific metabolic effects," J Clin Endocrinol Metab, vol. 83, no. 11, pp. 3890-6, 1998.

Kuromaru R, Kohno H and Hara T, "Changes in adiposity and excess body weight correlate with growth responses but not with decreases in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels during GH treatment in GH-deficient children," Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 799-803, 2002.

Fukuda I, Iizuka N, Yasumoto K, Morita J, Kurimoto M and Takano K, "Metabolic comorbidities revealed in patients with childhood-onset adult GH deficiency after cessation of GH replacement therapy for short stature," Endocr J, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 977-84, 2008.

How to Cite
Mirela E Iancu, Alice I Albu, & Dragoș N Albu. (2022). The Impact of Growth Hormone Treatment on Lipid Profile in Pediatric Growth-Hormone Deficiency . International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR), 62(2), 153-161. Retrieved from