Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Nanosilicates from Kenyan Indigenous Microporous Clay
Keywords:Sodium nanosilicates, Microporous clay, thermal calcination, Base extraction
This study reports the synthesis of novel sodium nanosilicates extracted from locally available Kenyan clay. The synthetic method involved thermal calcination of the clay at 1000 0C followed by alkaline extraction with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at 75 0C. The calcination temperature of 1000 0C was ideal for enhancing the conversion of silica components and decreasing the alumina components by making them soluble in the extracting base. Different concentrations of extraction medium (NaOH) were evaluated. The clay and the synthesized nanosilicates were characterized by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, Field emission scanning, and transmission electron microscopy (FESEM & FETEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). 20% (w/v) NaOH was found to be the most appropriate concentration as revealed by XRF and EDS data which showed better silica content.
. Kevadiya, Bhavesh D., and Hari C. Bajaj. "The layered silicate, montmorillonite (MMT) as a drug delivery carrier." In Key Engineering Materials, vol. 571, pp. 111-132. Trans Tech Publications Ltd, 2013.
. Menaa, Bouzid. "The importance of nanotechnology in biomedical sciences." J Biotechnol Biomaterial 1 (2011): 105e.
. Jain, Kewal K., and Kewal K. Jain. The handbook of nanomedicine. Vol. 404. NJ:: Humana Press, 2008.
. Yu, Q. L. "Application of nanomaterials in alkali-activated materials." In Nanotechnology in Eco-Efficient Construction, pp. 97-121. Woodhead Publishing, 2019.
. Khin, Mya Mya, A. Sreekumaran Nair, V. Jagadeesh Babu, Rajendiran Murugan, and Seeram Ramakrishna. "A review on nanomaterials for environmental remediation." Energy & Environmental Science 5, no. 8 (2012): 8075-8109.
. Dworakowska, Sylwia, Cristina Tiozzo, Marta Niemczyk-Wrzeszcz, Piotr Michorczyk, Nicoletta Ravasio, Rinaldo Psaro, Dariusz Bogdał, and Matteo Guidotti. "Mesoporous molecular sieves containing niobium (V) as catalysts for the epoxidation of fatty acid methyl esters and rapeseed oil." Journal of Cleaner Production 166 (2017): 901-909.
. Mushtaq, Ayesha, Nelofer Jamil, Sabeena Rizwan, Fazeela Mandokhel, Musarrat Riaz, G. L. Hornyak, M. Najam Malghani, and M. Naeem Shahwani. "Engineered Silica Nanoparticles and silica nanoparticles containing Controlled Release Fertilizer for drought and saline areas." In IOP conference series: materials science and engineering, vol. 414, no. 1, p. 012029. IOP Publishing, 2018.
. Sauer, Daniela, Loredana Saccone, Daniel J. Conley, Ludger Herrmann, and Michael Sommer. "Review of methodologies for extracting plant-available and amorphous Si from soils and aquatic sediments." Biogeochemistry 80, no. 1 (2006): 89-108.
. Tabatabaei, S., A. Shukohfar, R. Aghababazadeh, and A. Mirhabibi. "Experimental study of the synthesis and characterisation of silica nanoparticles via the sol-gel method." In Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 26, no. 1, p. 090. IOP Publishing, 2006.
. Zulfiqar, Usama, Tayyab Subhani, and S. Wilayat Husain. "Synthesis and characterization of silica nanoparticles from clay." Journal of Asian Ceramic Societies 4, no. 1 (2016): 91-96.
. Hulbert, S. F., and D. E. Huff. "Kinetics of alumina removal from a calcined kaolin with nitric, sulphuric and hydrochloric acids." Clay Minerals 8, no. 3 (1970): 337-345.
. Rayzman, Viktor L., Andrei V. Aturin, Ilya Z. Pevzner, Viktor M. Sizyakov, Leonid P. Ni, and Igor K. Filipovich. "Extracting silica and alumina from low-grade bauxite." Jom 55, no. 8 (2003): 47-50.
. Aphane, Mathibela E., Frédéric J. Doucet, Richard A. Kruger, Leslie Petrik, and Elizabet M. van der Merwe. "Preparation of sodium silicate solutions and silica nanoparticles from South African coal fly ash." Waste and Biomass Valorization 11, no. 8 (2020): 4403-4417.
. Georgiadis, Anna, Daniela Sauer, Jörn Breuer, Ludger Herrmann, Thilo Rennert, and Karl Stahr. "Optimising the extraction of amorphous silica by NaOH from soils of temperate-humid climate." Soil Research 53, no. 4 (2015): 392-400.
. Kavaz, Doga, and Ashok Vaseashta. "Synthesizing Nano Silica Nanoparticles from Barley Grain Waste: Effect of Temperature on Mechanical Properties." Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 28, no. 4 (2019).
. Abdullahi, Y., E. A. Ali, and A. O. Lawal. "Roast alkaline leaching of silica from kaolinitic clay." ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 8, no. 10 (2013): 864-870.
. Yang, Xiaofang, Payman Roonasi, and Allan Holmgren. "A study of sodium silicate in aqueous solution and sorbed by synthetic magnetite using in situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopy." Journal of colloid and interface science 328, no. 1 (2008): 41-47.
. Szegedi, Ágnes, Zoltán Kónya, Dóra Méhn, Edit Solymár, Gabriella Pál-Borbély, Zsolt E. Horváth, László P. Biró, and Imre Kiricsi. "Spherical mesoporous MCM-41 materials containing transition metals: synthesis and characterization." Applied Catalysis A: General 272, no. 1-2 (2004): 257-266.
. Hindryawati, Noor, Gaanty Pragas Maniam, Md Rezaul Karim, and Kwok Feng Chong. "Transesterification of used cooking oil over alkali metal (Li, Na, K) supported rice husk silica as potential solid base catalyst." Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal 17, no. 2 (2014): 95-103.
How to Cite
Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the following terms.