The Use of Blended Cinder Aggregates for Concrete Mixes


  • Dr. Duwa Hamisi Chengula Mbeya University of Science and Technology, College of Engineering and Technology, Department of Civil Engineering, P.O. Box 131, Mbeya, Tanzania


Aggregates, Ciders, Concretes, Light weight concrete, Prediction model, Blending, Compressive strength, Density, Blending model


The study to design concrete by using cinder blended aggregates was conducted in Mbeya Region Tanzania. Cinder aggregates were blended with crushed stones aggregates for concrete mixes. In Mbeya Region there are abundant volcanic materials which are pozzolan, cinders and pumices. The study involved characterization of source aggregates and for blended aggregates. The materials used for this study were natural cinder aggregates from Ituha, Crushed stone aggregates from Mbalizi and excavated pit sands from Ituha. The binder used was CEMI 32.5N manufactured by Tembo Lafarge Cement Company Limited.

The results from strength and physical properties tests of aggregates indicated that Ituha cinder aggregates have low strength, low specific gravity and high water absorption compared to Mbalizi crushed stone aggregates. The strength results for Ituha cinder aggregates are 75kN for TFV, 38.76% for ACV and 48. 26% for AIV. The results of SG, WA, EI and FI for Ituha cinder aggregates are 1.77, 3.31%, 19.82% and 12.88% respectively. The strength results for Mbalizi crushed stones aggregates are 240kN for TFV, 15.82% for ACV and 18. 30% for AIV. The results of SG, WA, EI and FI for Mbalizi crushed stone aggregates are 2.63, 0.87%, 34.41% and 12.60% respectively. The SG and WA for Ituha pit sand are 2.44 and 3.18% respectively.

Sieve analysis for Ituha cinder aggregates, Mbalizi crushed stone aggregates and Ituha pit sands were conducted. The aggregates and sands were blended together to get six blended sample materials targeting the selected aggregate envelopes for concrete mixes. The concrete were prepared for two different cement contents of 350kg/m3 and 450kg/m3 mixed at W/C ratio of 0.55. Due to high demand of mixing water the super plasticizer at 2.5% and 3% for cement content of 450kg/m3 and 350kg/m3 respectively were added to fresh concrete. The concretes were cured under water for 7days, 14days, 21days and 28days. The results for compressive strength indicated that the compressive strengths increased with increasing curing period and increased amount of Mbalizi crushed aggregates and cement contents. The compressive strength of concrete specimens mixed at cement content of 350kg/m3 cured for 28days are 23.8MPa for 55IPS45MCA00ICA, 22.3MPa for 50IPS36MCA14ICA, 20.7MPa for 45IPS27MCA28ICA, 18.4MPa for 40IPS18MCA42ICA, 18.0MPa for 35IPS09MCA56ICA and 16.6MPa for 30IPS00MCA70ICA. The compressive strength of concrete mixed at cement content of 450kg/m3 cured for 28days are 27.8MPa for 55IPS45MCA00ICA, 29.0MPa for 50IPS36MCA14ICA, 26.1MPa for 45IPS27MCA28ICA, 24.6MPa for 40IPS18MCA42ICA, 22.9MPa for 35IPS09MCA56ICA and 22.2MPa for 30IPS00MCA70ICA. But also densities of cured concrete specimens for both cement contents increased with increased curing periods and amount of Mbalizi crushed aggregates. The increase in compressive strength with increased curing period and Mbalizi crushed aggregates is because of development of cementitious compound and high resistance against crushing. For this study for easy blending process of aggregate materials, the blending model have been developed, the model uses median particle size (MS) and grading factor (GF) as variables. To make use of strength of aggregate materials, the prediction model of compressive strength of 28days cured concrete specimens was developed. The model uses TFV, SG and cement content as variables.


. Chirag Pawar, Palak Sharma and Abhyuday Titiksh, 2016. Gradation of Aggregates and its Effects on Properties of Concrete. International Journal of Trend in Research and Development, Volume 3(2), ISSN: 2394-9333 Civil Engineering Department, SSGI (FET), Chhattisgarh Swami Vivekanand Technical University, Bhilai, India.

. Sadaqat Ullah Khan, Muhammad Fadhil Nuruddin, Tehmina Ayub, and Nasir Shafiq, 2014. Effects of Different Mineral Admixtures on the Properties of Fresh Concrete. Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Block 13, Level III, 31750 Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia. Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Scientific World Journal Volume 2014, Article ID 986567, 11 pages

. Alanazi, H., 2011. Effect of Aggregate Types on the Mechanical Properties of Traditional Concrete and Geopolymer Concrete. Crystals 2021, 11, 1110. 10.3390/cryst11091110.

. Abdullahi. M., 2012. Effect of aggregate type on Compressive strength of concrete. International Journal of Civil and Structural Engineering Volume 2, No 3, 2012 All rights reserved Integrated Publishing services Research article ISSN 0976 – 4399. Civil Engineering Department, Federal University of Technology P.M.B 65, Minna Niger State, Nigeria. Doi:10.6088/ijcser.00202030008

. Jacek Góra and Wojciech Piasta, 2020. Impact of mechanical resistance of aggregate on properties of concrete. Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Lublin University of Technology, Lublin, Poland. Journal of Case Studies in Construction Materials, Vol 13, 2020.

. Fontijn, K., Williamson, D., Mbede, E. and Ernst, G. G. J., The Rungwe Volcanic Province, Tanzania – A Volcanological Review, Journal of African Earth Sciences, Elsevier, Issues 65, Pp 12-31, 2012.

. Duwa Hamisi Chengula. “Improving Cementitious Properties of Blended Pozzolan Based Materials for Construction of Low Cost Buildings in Mbeya Region, Tanzania”. PhD thesis submitted to Kassel University. Issue 29 of Schriftenreihe Baustoffe und Massivbau, published by Kassel University Press GmbH, Feb 28 2018. ISBN 20183737604436, 9783737604437

. Ibrahim A. Al-Akhaly and Abubaker A. Al-Sakkaf, 2020. Assessment of Engineering Properties of Al-Haweri Scoria, NW Sana’a, Yemen. Sana'a University, Yemen. Jeoloji Mühendisliği Dergisi / Journal of Geological Engineering 44 (2020) 117-131. DOI 10.24232/jmd.826975.

. Duwa Hamisi Chengula, Joseph Kilango Mnkeni, 2021. Improving Properties of Cinder Blended Materials for Construction of Low Volume Roads in Mbeya Region Tanzania. American Journal of Construction and Building Materials. Vol. 5, No. 1, 2021, pp. 22-31. doi: 10.11648/j.ajcbm.20210501.14.

. Gareth, G. J., Otto, A., Greening, P. A. K., TRL Ltd. Investigation of the Use of Cinder Gravels in Pavement Layers for Low - Volume Roads, Final Project Report, ETH2058A. London, March 2018.

. Khandaker M. Anwar Hossain, 2006. Blended cement and lightweight concrete using scoria: mix design, strength, durability and heat insulation characteristics. Department of Civil Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. International Journal of Physical Sciences Vol. 1 (1), pp. 005-016, September 2006. Available online at

. Anil Kumar R and P Prakash, 2015. Studies on Structural Light Weight Concrete by Blending Light Weight Aggregates. Bangalore, India. International Journal of Innovative Research in Engineering & Management (IJIREM), ISSN: 2350-0557, Volume-2, Issue-4, July-2015.

. DIN1045:2008-08, 2009: Betontechnische Daten, Ausgabe 2009 (Inklusive).

. Y. Ghasemi, M. Emborg and A. Cwirzen, 2019. Effect of water film thickness on the flow in conventional mortars and concrete. Materials and Structures (2019) 52:62.

. Muhsen Salam Mohammed, Salahaldein Alsadey Mohamed, Megat Azmi Megat Johari, 2016. Influence of Superplasticizer Compatibility on the Setting Time, Strength and Stiffening Characteristics of Concrete. Advances in Applied Sciences. Vol. 1, No. 2, 2016, pp. 30-36. doi: 10.11648/j.aas.20160102.12.

. MoW, 2000. The United Republic of Tanzania, Ministry of Works. Laboratory Testing Manual, Central Material Laboratory, June 2000, ISBN 9987-8891-3-1

. Duwa Hamisi Chengulaa, Joseph J. Msambichaka, Bernhard Middendorf, 2018. Synthetic Determination of Specific Density, Specific Surface Area and Particle Size Distribution of Cementitious Powder Materials. International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) (2018) Volume 41, No 2, pp 177-189.

. Quality Assurance for Aggregates. CAMTECH/C/2006/QA-AGG/1.0, October – 2006. Centre for Advanced Maintenance Technology. Excellence in Maintenance. Maharajpur, Gwalior - 474 020 (India).

. Mahmut SİNECEN, Metehan MAKİNACI, Ali TOPAL, 2011. Aggregate Classification by Using 3D Image Analysis Technique. Gazi University Journal of Science, GU J Sci 24(4):773-780 (2011).

. Aggregates for Concrete. Construction Standard CS3:2013. The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. CS3:2013 was published under the authority of the Standing Committee on Concrete Technology (SCCT) in May 2013.




How to Cite

Dr. Duwa Hamisi Chengula. (2022). The Use of Blended Cinder Aggregates for Concrete Mixes. International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR), 61(1), 44–61. Retrieved from