Political Changes in Albania 1989-1992

  • Fati Iseni Mother Teresa University
  • Agim Jakupi Mother Teresa University
Keywords: Communism, Albania, dictartorship, pluralism, democracy

Abstract

The period of the fall of the communist regime and the emergence of political pluralism is one of the most important periods of recent national history. Although this is a short period, it is packed with many important events of a political, economic and cultural nature.For more than four decades, respectively since the Second World War in Albania has ruled the Albanian Labor Party. This regime is known as one of the wildest regimes in Europe and the world. Based on the Marxist-Leninist Doctrine this regime and its suite led by dictator Enver Hoxha had good diplomatic relations in the beginning with Tito's former Yugoslavia until 1948, with which he severed diplomatic relations by declaring that “Yugoslav revisionists were neither for peace nor for socialism. They were linked to the imperialists and helped to overthrow the communist regimes in the countries bordering Yugoslavia.” The Soviet Union until 1960, then seceded from the USSR and approached China that lasted until 1978, when it severed ties with China that led to the formula of self-isolation untill 1991. Afterwards Albania would be the most isolated country in the world and would fanatically defend Marxism-Leninism and Stalinism that had been denounced by Khrushchev and Soviet Union. The communist regime in Albania will lead a strange and incomprehensible foreign policy. After the severance of Albania's relations with the socialist bloc, the communist ruling clique did not see the way to wake up and reconsider the issue of Albania's foreign policy in order to be oriented toward the west which would open new perspectives in the development of the Albanian society. During the 80s the economic situation in Albania will become unbearable and after all the efforts made by the Albanian Labour Party to save the regime will not succeed and when the situation came to boiling point it erupted in December 1990. The situation was followed by much unrest until the pluralist political system emerged and the victory of the Democratic Party in March 1992 came to power.

References

Gazeta “Flaka e Vëllazërimit”, 5 shkurt 1989, H. Selimi, Nacionalizmi shqiptar edhe mëtej po e ngarkon gjendjen e sigurisë. f. 9.

Philips, John, Macedonia, warlords & rebels in the Balkans, Yale University Press & New Haven and London, 2004 , f.64.

Islami, Hivzi, Problemet Demografike të Kosovës dhe të trevave të tjera etnike shqiptare, në Çështja e Kosovës një problem historic dhe actual, Instituti I Historisë – Prishtinë dhe Instituti I Historisë – Tiranë, Tiranë, 1996, f.262

Population censuses in the Republic of Macedonia 1948, 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981 and 1994, Book IX, Republic of Macedonia State Statistical Office, Skopje, April, 2002 f. 317. Dhe Census of population, households and dwellings in the Republic of Macedonia, 2002. Book X, Republic of Macedonia State Statistical Office, f.62.

Published
2021-04-02
Section
Articles