Detection and Characterization of Cucumber mosaic virus Infecting Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) in Malaysia

  • Buhari Muhammad Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Ahmadu Bello University, PMB 1044, Zaria, Nigeria, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
  • Kong Lih Ling Institute of Plantation Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43300 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
  • Lau Wei Hong Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
  • Ganesan Vadamalai Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
Keywords: Ginger, Cucumber mosaic virus, Detection, Virus, Zingiberaceae, RT-PCR


Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is herbaceous crop belonging to the family Zingiberaceae and cultivated for its medicinal properties and as marketable spice. A study was carried out to investigate Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) infection in Malaysian ginger plants, showing conspicuous symptoms of mosaic, stripping and yellowing. A total of 45 symptomatic and 15 non symptomatic ginger samples were collected from three States in Malaysia. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis using CMV specific primers showed 14 out of 60 samples were positive for CMV. Cloning and sequence analyses of the 500 bp amplicons revealed that the CMV isolates obtained were closely related to CMV isolates from China (tomato) and Thailand (cucumber) with 95% to 96% sequence similarity respectively. Phylogenetic analysis placed the Malaysian CMV isolates into Subgroup IB.  This is the first report of CMV infecting ginger in Malaysia


. M. N. A. Raji, S. Ab Karim, F. A. C. Ishak, and M. M. Arshad," Past and present practices of the Malay food heritage and culture in Malaysia." Journal of Ethnic Foods, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 221-231, 2017.

. I. Y. So, "Studies on ginger mosaic virus." Korean Journal of Plant Protection, vol. 19, no. 2, p. 67–72, 1980.

. J. E. Thomas, "Purification and properties of ginger chlorotic fleck virus." Annals of Applied Biology, vol. 108, no. 1, p. 43–50, 1986.

. S. de Breuil, F.J. Giolitti, N. Bejerman, and S. L. Lenardon, "Effects of cucumber mosaic virus on the yield and yield components of peanut." Journal of Plant Pathology, vol. 94, no. 3, p. 669–673, 2012.

. M. J. Roossinck, "Evolutionary History of Cucumber Mosaic Virus Deduced by Phylogenetic Analyses," Journal of Virology, vol. 76, no. 7, p. 3382–3387, 2002.

. K. B. G. Scholthof, S. Adkins, H. Czosnek, P. Palukaitis, E. Jacquot, T. Hohn, … G. D. Foster, "Top 10 plant viruses in molecular plant pathology," Molecular Plant Pathology, vol. 12, p. 938–954, 2011.

. G. Gambino, I. Perrone, and I. Gribaudo, G. P. I. &. G. I. Gambino, "A rapid and effective method for RNA extraction from different tissues of grapevine and other woody plants." Phytochemical Analysis, vol. 19, no. 6, p. 520–525, 2008.

. S. Wylie, C.R. Wilson, R. A. C. Jones, and M. G. K. Jones, "A polymerase chain reaction assay for cucumber mosaic virus in lupin seeds." Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 44, no. 1, p. 41–51, 1993.

. S. Kumar, G. Stecher, and K. Tamura, "MEGA7: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Version 7.0 for Bigger Datasets," Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol. 33, no. 7, p. 1870–1874, 2016.

. D. Sérémé, S. Lacombe, M. Konaté, A. Pinel-Galzi, V. S. E. Traoré, E. Hébrard, … G. Konaté, "Biological and molecular characterization of a putative new sobemovirus infecting Imperata cylindrica and maize in Africa," Archives of Virology, vol. 153, no. 10, pp. 1813-1820, 2008.

. S. Nouri, R. Arevalo, B. W. Falk, and R. L. Groves, "Genetic structure and molecular variability of Cucumber mosaic virus isolates in the United States," PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 5, 2014.

. N. Bald-Blume, J. H. W. Bergervoet, and E. Maiss, "Development of a molecular assay for the detection of Cucumber mosaic virus and the discrimination of its subgroups I and II," Journal of Virological Methods, vol. 243, p. 35–43, 2017.

. A. Hadidi, R. Flores, T. Candresse, and M. Barba, "Next-generation sequencing and genome editing in plant virology," Frontiers in Microbiology, p. [Accessed 21 December 2017], 2016.

. L. Rubio, L. Galipienso and I. Ferriol, "Detection of plant viruses and disease management: relevance of genetic diversity and evolution," Frontiers in plant science, vol. 11, p. 1092, 2020.

. K. K. Dey, C. Li, M. Elliott, J. McVay, L. Whilby, G. Hodges, and T.R. Smith, "First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Infecting Siam Tulip ( Curcuma alismatifolia ) in Florida," Plant Health Progress, vol. 20, no. 3, p. 132–132, 2019.

. Y. Kebede and S. Majumder, " Molecular detection and first report of Cucumber mosaic virus infecting ‘Cavendish’banana plants in Ethiopia." Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, pp. 1-4, 2020.

. M. Mazidah, K. Yusoff, H. Habibuddin, Y.H. Tan, and W. H. Lau, "Characterization of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) causing mosaic symptom on Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don in Malaysia," Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 41-53, 2012.