Variations in Haematological and Immunological Parameters among Hospitalized COVID 19 Patients
AbstractBackground: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2, a novel virus, has spreading globally, leading the World Health Organization to declare a pandemic. This study aims to ascertain the changes in haematological and immunological parameters in COVID-19 patients. Methods: Data from 109 confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted for treatment in the Isolation Centre at Al-Zawia city between 16 September and 29 December 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were extracted from electronic medical records and compared with those of 52 healthy controls.Results: The laboratory tests included blood routines and cellular and inflammatory biomarkers compared with healthy controls. Hospitalized patients had higher WBC (p<0.0001), platelet (P= 0.0060), NEU (P<0.0001), and RBC (P<0.0001) counts. C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) scores were compared with the normal range where data were not available from healthy controls and the results showed significantly higher levels in patients with Covid-19 (p<0.0001). Conversely, lymphocyte (LYM) counts were significantly lower in Covid-19 patients (P<0.0001). Conclusion: Complete blood count (CBC) and inflammatory biomarkers, including CRP and ESR, can help clinicians to assess the severity and prognosis of patients with COVID-19.
. C. Bao, X. Tao, W. Cui, B. Yi, T. Pan et al. 2020. SARS-CoV-2 induced thrombocytopenia as an important biomarker significantly correlated with abnormal coagulation function, increased intravascular blood clot risk and mortality in COVID-19 patients. "Experimental Hematology & Oncology” 9 (1): 1-8.
. X. Xiong, G. T. Chua, S. Chi, M. Y.W. Kwan, W. H. Sang et al. 2020. A Comparison Between Chinese Children Infected with Coronavirus Disease-2019 and with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome 2003. "The Journal of pediatrics” 224: 30-36.
. H. Esakandari, M. Nabi-Afjadi, J. Fakkari-Afjadi, N. Farahmandian, S. M. Miresmaeili. et al. 2020. A comprehensive review of COVID-19 characteristics. ."Biological procedures online” 22: 1-10.
. F. Jaat, N. Kermani. 2020. Coronavirus infection: overview and immune response. “Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research” 7 (10): 3266-3269.
. E. Prompetchara, C. Ketloy, T. Palaga. 2020. Immune responses in COVID-19 and potential vaccines: Lessons learned from SARS and MERS epidemic. “Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology”. 38(1):1-9.
. C. Wang, R. Deng, L. Gou, Z. Fu, X. Zhang, F. et al. 2020. Preliminary study to identify severe from moderate cases of COVID-19 using combined hematology parameters "Annals of translational medicine” 8(9):593.
. M. Zhou, X. Zhang, J. Qu. 2020. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a clinical update. “Frontiers of medicine” 14 (2): 126-135.
. E. Usul, I. Şan, B. Bekgöz, A. Şahin .2020. Role of hematological parameters in COVID-19 patients in the emergency room. ."Biomarkers in Medicine” 14(13):1207-1215.
. S. Sun, X. Cai, H. Wang, G. He, Y. Lin, 2020. Abnormalities of peripheral blood system in patients with COVID-19 in Wenzhou, China. “Clinica chimica Acta” 507:174-180.
. P. Malik, U. Patel, D. Mehta, N. Patel, R. Kelkar, 2020. Biomarkers and outcomes of COVID-19 hospitalisations: systematic review and meta-analysis. “BMJ evidence-based medicine”111365.
. L. Y. W. Lee, J. B. Cazier, T. Starkey, S. E.W. Briggs, R. Arnold. et al. 2020. COVID-19 prevalence and mortality in patients with cancer and the effect of primary tumour subtype and patient demographics: a prospective cohort study. ."The lancet oncology” 21 (10): 1309-1316.
. J. Liang, S. Nong, L. Jiang, X. Chi, D. Bi, et al. 2020. Correlations of disease severity and age with hematology parameter variations in patients with COVID-19 pre- and post-treatment. “Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis”. e23609.
. G. Ponti, M. Maccaferri, C. Ruini, A. Tomasi, T. Ozben, 2020. Biomarkers associated with COVID-19 disease progression. “Critical reviews in clinical laboratory sciences” 57 (6): 389-399.
. S. Kazancioglu, A. Bastug, B. O. Ozbay, N. Kemirtlek, H. Bodur, 2020. The role of haematological parameters in patients with COVID-19 and influenza virus infection. “Epidemiology & Infection” 148: e272.
. R. Mardani, A. A. Vasmehjani, F. Zali, A. Gholami, S. D. M. Nasab, 2020. Laboratory Parameters in Detection of COVID-19 Patients with Positive RT-PCR; a Diagnostic Accuracy Study. “Archives of academic emergency medicine” 8 (1): e43
. S. Lin, W. Mao, Q. Zou, S. Lu, S. Zheng. 2021. Associations between hematological parameters and disease severity in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. “Journal of clinical laboratory analysis” 35(1), e23604.
. A. Kantri, J. Ziati, M. Khalis, A. Haoudar, K. El Aidaoui, et al. 2021. Hematological and biochemical abnormalitiesassociated with severe forms of COVID-19: A retrospective single-center study from Morocco. “PLoS ONE” 16(2) e0246295
. J. Liu, Y. Liu, P. Xiang, L. Pu, H. Xiong, et al. 2020. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio predicts critical illness patients with 2019 coronavirus disease in the early stage. “Journal of Translational Medicine” 18: 1-12.
. X. Yuan, W. Huang, B. Ye, C. Chen, R. Huang, et al. 2020. Changes of hematological and immunological parameters in COVID-19 patients. “International journal of hematology". 112 (4):553-559.
. D. Liao, F. Zhou, L. Luo, M. Xu, H. Wang, 2020. Haematological characteristics and risk factors in the classification and prognosis evaluation of COVID-19: a retrospective cohort study. “The Lancet Haematology”. 7(9):e671-e678.
. D. Wang, B. Hu, C. Hu, F. Zhu, X. Liu, et al. 2020. Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients with 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. “Jama” 323(11):1061-1069.
. X. Liu, R. Zhang, G. He. 2020. Hematological findings in coronavirus disease 2019: indications of progression of disease. "Annals of hematology” 99 (7):1421-1428.
. J. Liu, Y. Liu, P. Xiang, L. Pu, H. Xiong, C. Li. 2020. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio predicts critical illness patients with 2019 coronavirus disease in the early stage. “Journal of Translational Medicine” 18: 1-12.
. G. Ponti, M. Maccaferri, C. Ruini, A. Tomasi, T. Ozben. 2020. Biomarkers associated with COVID-19 disease progression. “Critical reviews in clinical laboratory sciences” 57(6): 389-399.
. A. Rampotas, S. Pavord. 2020. Platelet aggregates, a marker of severe COVID-19 disease. "Journal of Clinical Pathology” 16, 206933.
. M. Yang, M.H.L. Ng, C. K. Li. 2005. Thrombocytopenia in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (review) “Hematology”. 10:101–105
. S. Yin, M. Huang, D. Li, N. Tang. 2020. Difference of coagulation features between severe pneumonia induced by SARS-CoV2 and non-SARSCoV2. “Journal of thrombosis and thrombolysis” 1- 4.
. A. Jin, B. Yan, W. Hua, D. Feng, B. Xu. 2020. Clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in Beijing. “Biosafety and Health” 2(2): 104-111.
. J. L. Frater, G. Zini, G. d'Onofrio, H. J. Rogers, J. L. Frater, 2020. COVID‐19 and the clinical hematology laboratory. “International journal of laboratory hematology” 42: 11-18.
. Q. Li, X. Ding, G. Xia, H. G. Chen, F. Chen, 2020. Eosinopenia and elevated C-reactive protein facilitate triage of COVID-19 patients in fever clinic: A retrospective case-control study. “EClinicalMedicine” 3 (23):100375.
. B. M. Henry, M. H. S. de Oliveira, S. Benoi, M. Plebani, G. Lippi .2020. Hematologic, biochemical and immune biomarker abnormalities associated with severe illness and mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a meta-analysis. “Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine” 58(7): 1021-1028.
. Lapić I, Rogić D, Plebani M. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate is associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a pooled analysis. “Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine” 58(7):1146-1148
Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- By submitting the processing fee, it is understood that the author has agreed to our terms and conditions which may change from time to time without any notice.
- It should be clear for authors that the Editor In Chief is responsible for the final decision about the submitted papers; have the right to accept\reject any paper. The Editor In Chief will choose any option from the following to review the submitted papers:A. send the paper to two reviewers, if the results were negative by one reviewer and positive by the other one; then the editor may send the paper for third reviewer or he take immediately the final decision by accepting\rejecting the paper. The Editor In Chief will ask the selected reviewers to present the results within 7 working days, if they were unable to complete the review within the agreed period then the editor have the right to resend the papers for new reviewers using the same procedure. If the Editor In Chief was not able to find suitable reviewers for certain papers then he have the right to accept\reject the paper.B. sends the paper to a selected editorial board member(s). C. the Editor In Chief himself evaluates the paper.
- Author will take the responsibility what so ever if any copyright infringement or any other violation of any law is done by publishing the research work by the author
- Before publishing, author must check whether this journal is accepted by his employer, or any authority he intends to submit his research work. we will not be responsible in this matter.
- If at any time, due to any legal reason, if the journal stops accepting manuscripts or could not publish already accepted manuscripts, we will have the right to cancel all or any one of the manuscripts without any compensation or returning back any kind of processing cost.
- The cost covered in the publication fees is only for online publication of a single manuscript.