The Role of Horizontal Probe Drill Data in Tunnel Excavations: A Case Study from Istanbul Bosphorus Tunnel
AbstractResearch methods are needed during excavations with TBM (Tunnel Boring Machine) to ensure safe excavation conditions because it is not possible to see and continuously monitor the excavation face completely. One of the most dangerous conditions expected in the tunnels that will be opened underwater is sudden and high water ingress. To detect possible water ingress, one of the most reliable methods that can be used is to perform horizontal probe drills. With water flow, the dimension of the danger increases more if weak ground conditions and fault and/or crush zones are monitored intensively. Such conditions may cause serious damage to TBM, and sudden washing can cause collapse and deviations in the vertical and horizontal axes. In this sense, considering the negativities of the geological and hydrogeological conditions of the Bosphorus Tunnel passing beneath the Bosphorus Strait, it was set as a contract condition that TBM excavation would be performed according to the results of the horizontal probe drills. During the excavation along the tunnel route, horizontal probe drills were performed at an average of 36 m. The Instantaneous Advance Speed (IAS) with 1-cm intervals, Thrust Pressure (TP), Torque (TQ), and washing water thrusts of the horizontal probe drills were recorded in this respect. In this article, the Instantaneous Advance Speed (IAS) values recorded during drilling were normalized with torque and thrust values, respectively. In this way, the changes in advance speeds were determined, and it was determined whether these changes were caused by increased thrusts, and/or torque or lithological changes. The relations between normalized Instantaneous Advance Speed (IAS) values and the RQD values at the tunnel excavation level of 14 vertical drillings built on the tunnel route were revealed. These relationships showed that the speed of Instantaneous Advance Speeds decreased as RQD values increased. This study must be proceeded by analyzing statistical data with a database containing more vertical drilling data to develop the TBM performance prediction model in such a way that the relations between formation characteristics and horizontal probe drill performance are revealed based on horizontal probe drill data.
. T. Najder. Working procedure from Bosphorus Tunnel (SP-7) project: “Method Statement of Probe Drilling and Pre-grouting” (unpublished), Istanbul, 2009.
. G.J. Hjelme.” Drill parameter analysis in the Løren tunnel: Normalization and interpretation of automatically collected.” Master Thesis in Geosciences, Unıversıty Of Oslo, Norway, 2010.
. D.F. Howarth, W.R. Adamson, J.R. Berndt. “Correlation of Model Tunnel Boring and Drilling Machine Performances with Rock Properties.” International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, Volume 23, Issue 2, April 1986, pp 171-175, UK.
. Fish, B.G. “The Basic Variables in Rotary Drilling.” Mine and Quarry Engineering, Vol. 27, No. 1, 1986, pp. 29-34.
. J. Paone. D. Madson. “Drillability Studies: Impregnated Diamond Bits”, U.S. Bureau of Mines Report of Investigations, RI 6776, 1966, pp. 16.
. Y.V. Müftüoğlu. “Automatic Recording Methods and Practice of drilling parameters,” Turkey Scientific and Technical Mining Congress (in Turkish), 1987, pp.253-270, Ankara.
. G. Pearse. “Hydraulic rock drills.” Mining Magazine, March 1985.
. R.L. Schmidt. Drillability Studies: “Percussive Drilling in the Field.” U.S. Bureau of Mines Report of Investigations, RI 7684, pp. 31, 1972.
. H. Schunnesson. “RQD predictions based on drill performance parameters.” International Journal of Tunneling and Underground Space Technology, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 345-351, 1996.
. H. Schunnesson. “Rock Characterisation Using Percussive Drilling.” Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. Vol. 35, No. 6, pp. 711-725, 1998, Great Britain.
. N. Bilgin. S. Kahraman. 2003. “Drillability prediction in rotary blast hole drilling.” 18th International Mining Congress and Exhibition of Turkey, Antalya, pp. 177-182.
. N. Bilgin. U. Ates. “Probe drilling ahead of two TBMs in difficult ground conditions in Turkey.” Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 49 (7), 2763–2772, 2016.
. N. Bilgin. H. Çopur. C. Balci. “Probe drilling ahead of TBMs in difficult ground conditions,” TBM Excavation in Difficult Ground Conditions Case Studies from Turkey, Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn, Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Rotherstraße 21, 10245 Berlin, Germany, 2016, pp. 293-311.
. A. Bakir. I. Eris. S. Daglioglu. “Interrelationships between TBM performance and probe drill data in Melen Water Tunnel (SP-7) in Istanbul” in Proceedings, Geomechanic, symposium for Mahir Vardar (in Turkish), 2012, Istanbul, ITU, pp 91-103.
. A. Bakir. I. Eris. S. Daglioglu. “Probe drilling in Bosphorus Tunnel (SP-7)”, in; Proceedings for Atilla Yalcin Symposium (in Turkish), 2011, İstanbul, ITU, pp 72-82.
. D. U. Deere, “Technical Description of Rock Cores for Engineering Purpose,” Rock Mechanics and Engineering Geology, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1963, pp. 16-22
. M.J. Scoble. J. Peck., Hendricks. C. “Correlation between rotary drill performance parameters and borehole geophysical logging.” Mining Science and Technology, Volume 8, Issue 3, May 1989, pp. 301-312
. N.C.M. Beattie. “Monitoring-While-Drilling for open-pit mining in a hard rock environment: An Investigation of Pattern Recognition Techniques Thrust to Rock Identification.” A thesis for the degree of Master of Science (Engineering), Queen’s University. Kingston, Ontario, Canada, April 2009.
Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- By submitting the processing fee, it is understood that the author has agreed to our terms and conditions which may change from time to time without any notice.
- It should be clear for authors that the Editor In Chief is responsible for the final decision about the submitted papers; have the right to accept\reject any paper. The Editor In Chief will choose any option from the following to review the submitted papers:A. send the paper to two reviewers, if the results were negative by one reviewer and positive by the other one; then the editor may send the paper for third reviewer or he take immediately the final decision by accepting\rejecting the paper. The Editor In Chief will ask the selected reviewers to present the results within 7 working days, if they were unable to complete the review within the agreed period then the editor have the right to resend the papers for new reviewers using the same procedure. If the Editor In Chief was not able to find suitable reviewers for certain papers then he have the right to accept\reject the paper.B. sends the paper to a selected editorial board member(s). C. the Editor In Chief himself evaluates the paper.
- Author will take the responsibility what so ever if any copyright infringement or any other violation of any law is done by publishing the research work by the author
- Before publishing, author must check whether this journal is accepted by his employer, or any authority he intends to submit his research work. we will not be responsible in this matter.
- If at any time, due to any legal reason, if the journal stops accepting manuscripts or could not publish already accepted manuscripts, we will have the right to cancel all or any one of the manuscripts without any compensation or returning back any kind of processing cost.
- The cost covered in the publication fees is only for online publication of a single manuscript.