Qualities of Effective Teachers; Factors Affecting the Teachers Commitment
Keywords:Effective teachers, Teacher’s job satisfaction, administration, Teacher retention, Teacher characteristics, Teacher’s commitment
Teaching is a demanding and complex craft. It is impossible to discuss in a page or two the characteristics and input of an effective teacher. Effective teaching is the fundamental ingredient for the success of every student. Teachers are the central figure of the educational infrastructure of any country, and have a huge role to play in shaping the destiny of their nation. It is a noble and selfless profession. The following paper provides and introduction to the literature regarding Teacher effectiveness. This paper displays the input of the teacher in a society, what challenges they have to counter, and what recommendations can be implemented to improve the development and effectiveness of the teachers. In this study the impact and importance of effective teachers in being investigated through the feedback from both the teachers and the students. And a comparison and inter relationship between the both opinions is being developed.
On the other hand Lack of teacher commitment is one of the key factors that have the potential to cause the shortage of effective teachers all over the world. There are multiple factors that might cause teachers to leave their jobs. These can be low salaries, extravagant workload, poor working conditions, low quality of teacher preparation programs, inefficient leadership etc. In the following research work a qualitative and quantitative method was implied to study the working condition environment and teacher attrition patterns. It was seen that school with satisfactory and proper working conditions displayed a better commitment and lower attrition rates. This study also documented the patterns of teacher retention rates across multiple schools, which had different policies, and student demographics.
. T. Knowles and D. F. Brown, What Every Middle School Teacher Should Know: ERIC, 2000.
. L. Darling-Hammond, Doing what matters most: Investing in quality teaching: ERIC, 1997.
. R. H. Heck, "Teacher effectiveness and student achievement: Investigating a multilevel cross‐classified model," Journal of Educational Administration, 2009.
. W. L. Sanders and S. P. Horn, "Research findings from the Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System (TVAAS) database: Implications for educational evaluation and research," Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education, vol. 12, pp. 247-256, 1998.
. W. L. Sanders and J. C. Rivers, "Cumulative and residual effects of teachers on future student academic achievement," 1996.
. P. Sehgal, R. Nambudiri, and S. K. Mishra, "Teacher effectiveness through self-efficacy, collaboration and principal leadership," International Journal of Educational Management, 2017.
. H. Habib, "A study of teacher effectiveness and its importance," National Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development, vol. 2, pp. 530-532, 2017.
. M. K. Dove, "Teacher attrition: A critical American and International education issue," Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin, vol. 71, 2004.
. J. Fern, "University could do more to stop the exodus from state school teaching," The Guardian, 2017.
. D. Macdonald, "Teacher attrition: A review of literature," Teaching and teacher education, vol. 15, pp. 835-848, 1999.
. R. M. Ingersoll, "Turnover and Shortages among Science and Mathematics Teachers in the United States," 2003.
. L. Sutcher, L. Darling-Hammond, and D. Carver-Thomas, "A coming crisis in teaching? Teacher supply, demand, and shortages in the US," Learning Policy Institute, 2016.
. N. C. o. Teaching and A. s. Future, No dream denied: A pledge to America's children: National Commission on Teaching and America's Future., 2003.
. S. Weale, "Almost a third of teachers quit state sector within five years of qualifying," The Guardian, vol. 24, 2016.
. T. Geiger and M. Pivovarova, "The effects of working conditions on teacher retention," Teachers and Teaching, vol. 24, pp. 604-625, 2018.
. J. L. Whipp and L. Geronime, "Experiences that predict early career teacher commitment to and retention in high-poverty urban schools," Urban Education, vol. 52, pp. 799-828, 2017.
. D. Boyd, P. Grossman, K. Hammerness, H. Lankford, S. Loeb, M. Ronfeldt, et al., "Recruiting effective math teachers: evidence from New York City," American Educational Research Journal, vol. 49, pp. 1008-1047, 2012.
. H. F. Ladd, "Teachers’ perceptions of their working conditions: How predictive of planned and actual teacher movement?," Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, vol. 33, pp. 235-261, 2011.
. N. Simon and S. M. Johnson, "Teacher turnover in high-poverty schools: What we know and can do," Teachers College Record, 2015.
. R. M. Ingersoll and H. May, "The magnitude, destinations, and determinants of mathematics and science teacher turnover," Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, vol. 34, pp. 435-464, 2012.
. E. Berman, J. Bound, and S. Machin, "Implications of skill-biased technological change: international evidence," The quarterly journal of economics, vol. 113, pp. 1245-1279, 1998.
. C. M. Guarino, L. Santibanez, and G. A. Daley, "Teacher recruitment and retention: A review of the recent empirical literature," Review of educational research, vol. 76, pp. 173-208, 2006.
. G. D. Borman and N. M. Dowling, "Teacher attrition and retention: A meta-analytic and narrative review of the research," Review of educational research, vol. 78, pp. 367-409, 2008.
. R. Ingersoll and H. May, "Recruitment, retention and the minority teacher shortage," 2011.
. J. Marvel, D. M. Lyter, P. Peltola, G. A. Strizek, B. A. Morton, and R. Rowland, "Teacher Attrition and Mobility: Results from the 2004-05 Teacher Follow-Up Survey. NCES 2007-307," National Center for Education Statistics, 2007.
. B. Achinstein and R. T. Ogawa, Change (d) agents: New teachers of color in urban schools: Teachers College Press, 2011.
. A. Dixson and J. E. Dingus, "In Search of Our Mothers' Gardens: Black Women Teachers and Professional Socialization," Teachers College Record, vol. 110, pp. 805-837, 2008.
. J. Irizarry and M. L. Donaldson, "Teach for America: The Latinization of US schools and the critical shortage of Latina/o teachers," American Educational Research Journal, vol. 49, pp. 155-194, 2012.
. C. W. Lewis, "African American male teachers in public schools: An examination of three urban school districts," Teachers College Record, vol. 108, pp. 224-245, 2006.
. A. Villegas and J. Irvine, "Arguments for increasing the racial/ethnic diversity of the teaching force: A look at the evidence," in Annual meeting of the American educational research conference, San Diego, CA, 2009.
. S. A. Bobbitt, Characteristics of stayers, movers, and leavers: Results from the teacher followup survey, 1988-89: National Center for Education Statistics, US Department of Education, Office …, 1991.
. C. McCreight, "Teacher Attrition, Shortage, and Strategies for Teacher Retention," 2000.
. S. A. Eckert, "What do teaching qualifications mean in urban schools? A mixed-methods study of teacher preparation and qualification," Journal of Teacher Education, vol. 64, pp. 75-89, 2013.
. V. Dannetta, "What factors influence a teacher’s commitment to student learning?," Leadership and Policy in Schools, vol. 1, pp. 144-171, 2002.
. R. T. Mowday, L. W. Porter, and R. Steers, "Organizational linkages: The psychology of commitment, absenteeism, and turnover," ed: San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1982.
. K. S. Louis, "Effects of teacher quality of work life in secondary schools on commitment and sense of efficacy," School effectiveness and school improvement, vol. 9, pp. 1-27, 1998.
. C. Riehl and J. W. Sipple, "Making the most of time and talent: Secondary school organizational climates, teaching task environments, and teacher commitment," American Educational Research Journal, vol. 33, pp. 873-901, 1996.
. J. W. Kushman, "The organizational dynamics of teacher workplace commitment: A study of urban elementary and middle schools," Educational administration quarterly, vol. 28, pp. 5-42, 1992.
. S. J. Rosenholtz, "Effective schools: Interpreting the evidence," American journal of Education, vol. 93, pp. 352-388, 1985.
. W. A. Firestone, "Images of teaching and proposals for reform: A comparison of ideas from cognitive and organizational research," Educational administration quarterly, vol. 32, pp. 209-235, 1996.
. B. Fresko, D. Kfir, and F. Nasser, "Predicting teacher commitment," Teaching and teacher education, vol. 13, pp. 429-438, 1997.
. W. K. Hoy and D. J. Sabo, Quality middle schools: Open and healthy: ERIC, 1998.
. W. K. Hoy and C. J. Tarter, The road to open and healthy schools: A handbook for change: Corwin, 1997.
. M. S. Ibrahim, S. Ghavifekr, S. Ling, S. Siraj, and M. I. K. Azeez, "Can transformational leadership influence on teachers’ commitment towards organization, teaching profession, and students learning? A quantitative analysis," Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 15, pp. 177-190, 2014.
. P. Raj, "Concept of Teacher effectiveness," ed: New Delhi: Jaypee Brother Publications, 2011.
. E. Block, F. Crochet, L. Jones, and T. Papa, "The importance of teacher's effectiveness," Creative Education, vol. 3, p. 1164, 2012.
. C. M. Scrivner, "The relationship between student achievement and teacher attitude: A correlational study," Northcentral University, 2009.
. Y. Alzeebaree and I. A. Hasan, "What makes an effective EFL teacher: High School Students' Perceptions," Asian ESP Journal, vol. 16, pp. 169-183, 2020.
. H. Brosh, "Perceived characteristics of the effective language teacher," Foreign Language Annals, vol. 29, pp. 125-136, 1996.
. G.-P. Park and H.-W. Lee, "The characteristics of effective English teachers as perceived by high school teachers and students in Korea," Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 7, pp. 236-248, 2006.
. L. D. Coffman, The social composition of the teaching population: Teachers college, Columbia university, 1911.
. W. S. Elsbree, The American teacher: Evolution of a profession in a democracy: American Book Company, 1939.
. A. Odden, C. Kelley, H. Heneman, and A. Milanowski, "Enhancing Teacher Quality through Knowledge-and Skills-Based Pay. CPRE Policy Briefs," 2001.
. J. B. Diamond and J. P. Spillane, "High-stakes accountability in urban elementary schools: Challenging or reproducing inequality?," Teachers college record, vol. 106, pp. 1145-1176, 2004.
. E. L. Baker, P. E. Barton, L. Darling-Hammond, E. Haertel, H. F. Ladd, R. L. Linn, et al., "Problems with the Use of Student Test Scores to Evaluate Teachers. EPI Briefing Paper# 278," Economic Policy Institute, 2010.
. E. E. Thoonen, P. J. Sleegers, F. J. Oort, T. T. Peetsma, and F. P. Geijsel, "How to improve teaching practices: The role of teacher motivation, organizational factors, and leadership practices," Educational administration quarterly, vol. 47, pp. 496-536, 2011.
. W. A. Firestone, "Teacher evaluation policy and conflicting theories of motivation," Educational researcher, vol. 43, pp. 100-107, 2014.
. M. S. Knapp, Teaching for meaning in high-poverty classrooms: ERIC, 1995.
. H. Timperley and A. Alton-Lee, "Reframing teacher professional learning: An alternative policy approach to strengthening valued outcomes for diverse learners," Review of research in education, vol. 32, pp. 328-369, 2008.
. K. Yuan, V.-N. Le, D. F. McCaffrey, J. A. Marsh, L. S. Hamilton, B. M. Stecher, et al., "Incentive pay programs do not affect teacher motivation or reported practices: Results from three randomized studies," Educational evaluation and policy analysis, vol. 35, pp. 3-22, 2013.
. J. Jacobs, R. W. Burns, and D. Yendol-Hoppey, "The inequitable influence that varying accountability contexts in the United States have on teacher professional development," Professional development in education, vol. 41, pp. 849-872, 2015.
. A. Hynds and L. McDonald, "Motivating teachers to improve learning for culturally diverse students in New Zealand: promoting Māori and Pacific Islands student achievement," Professional development in education, vol. 36, pp. 525-540, 2010.
. R. R. Kelani and C. Khourey-Bowers, "Professional development in sub-Saharan Africa: what have we learned in Benin?," Professional development in education, vol. 38, pp. 705-723, 2012.
. J. P. Spillane, Distributed leadership vol. 4: John Wiley & Sons, 2012.
. J. Heystek and R. Terhoven, "Motivation as critical factor for teacher development in contextually challenging underperforming schools in South Africa," Professional development in education, vol. 41, pp. 624-639, 2015.
. M. E. Styslinger, D. M. Clary, and V. A. Oglan, "Motivating study groups across the disciplines in secondary schools," Professional development in education, vol. 41, pp. 467-486, 2015.
. S. Burgess and M. Ratto, "The role of incentives in the public sector: Issues and evidence," Oxford review of economic policy, vol. 19, pp. 285-300, 2003.
. L. M. Desimone, A. C. Porter, M. S. Garet, K. S. Yoon, and B. F. Birman, "Effects of professional development on teachers’ instruction: Results from a three-year longitudinal study," Educational evaluation and policy analysis, vol. 24, pp. 81-112, 2002.
. H. Borko, "Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain," Educational researcher, vol. 33, pp. 3-15, 2004.
. A. Appova and F. Arbaugh, "Teachers’ motivation to learn: implications for supporting professional growth," Professional development in education, vol. 44, pp. 5-21, 2018.
. S. Sims, TALIS 2013: Working Conditions, Teacher Job Satisfaction and Retention. Statistical Working Paper: ERIC, 2017.
. A. Toropova, E. Myrberg, and S. Johansson, "Teacher job satisfaction: the importance of school working conditions and teacher characteristics," Educational review, vol. 73, pp. 71-97, 2021.
. O.-P. Malinen and H. Savolainen, "The effect of perceived school climate and teacher efficacy in behavior management on job satisfaction and burnout: A longitudinal study," Teaching and Teacher Education, vol. 60, pp. 144-152, 2016.
. S. Sims, "Essays on the recruitment and retention of teachers," UCL (University College London), 2018.
. R. Ingersoll, "Misdiagnosing America’s teacher quality problem," International handbook of teacher quality and policy, pp. 79-96, 2017.
. S. Kukla-Acevedo, "Leavers, movers, and stayers: The role of workplace conditions in teacher mobility decisions," The Journal of Educational Research, vol. 102, pp. 443-452, 2009.
. M. B. Allen, "Eight Questions on Teacher Recruitment and Retention: What Does the Research Say?," Education Commission of the States (NJ3), 2005.
. A. Crossman and P. Harris, "Job satisfaction of secondary school teachers," Educational Management Administration & Leadership, vol. 34, pp. 29-46, 2006.
. P. Poppleton and G. Riseborough, "A Profession in Transition: educational policy and secondary school teaching in England in the 1980s," Comparative Education, vol. 26, pp. 211-226, 1990/01/01 1990.
. X. S. Liu and J. Ramsey, "Teachers’ job satisfaction: Analyses of the teacher follow-up survey in the United States for 2000–2001," Teaching and teacher Education, vol. 24, pp. 1173-1184, 2008.
. X. Ma and R. B. MacMillan, "Influences of workplace conditions on teachers' job satisfaction," The journal of educational research, vol. 93, pp. 39-47, 1999.
. R. M. Klassen and M. M. Chiu, "The occupational commitment and intention to quit of practicing and pre-service teachers: Influence of self-efficacy, job stress, and teaching context," Contemporary Educational Psychology, vol. 36, pp. 114-129, 2011.
. C. A. Mertler, "Job satisfaction and perception of motivation among middle and high school teachers," American secondary education, pp. 43-53, 2002.
. L. Lundahl, "Equality, inclusion and marketization of Nordic education: Introductory notes," Research in comparative and international education, vol. 11, pp. 3-12, 2016.
. T. Skolverket, "Svenska grundskoleelevers kunskaper i matematik och naturvetenskap i ett internationellt perspektiv.(2016)," Stockholm: Skolverket Tillgänglig på Internet: http://www. skolverket. se/publikationer, 2015.
. D. Desa, "Evaluating measurement invariance of TALIS 2013 complex scales: Comparison between continuous and categorical multiple-group confirmatory factor analyses," 2014.
. J. Perryman, "Panoptic performativity and school inspection regimes: Disciplinary mechanisms and life under special measures," Journal of Education Policy, vol. 21, pp. 147-161, 2006.
. N. Bascia and C. Rottmann, "What’s so important about teachers’ working conditions? The fatal flaw in North American educational reform," Journal of Education Policy, vol. 26, pp. 787-802, 2011.
. K. Seashore, K. Leithwood, K. Wahlstrom, and S. Anderson, "Investigating the links to improved student learning: Final report of research findings," 2010.
. P. Hallinger, L. Bickman, and K. Davis, "School context, principal leadership, and student reading achievement," The Elementary School Journal, vol. 96, pp. 527-549, 1996.
. A. Harris, "Distributed leadership: What we know," in Distributed leadership, ed: Springer, 2009, pp. 11-21.
. J. A. Ross and P. Gray, "School leadership and student achievement: The mediating effects of teacher beliefs," Canadian Journal of Education/Revue canadienne de l'éducation, pp. 798-822, 2006.
. K. A. Hipp, "Teacher Efficacy: Influence of Principal Leadership Behavior," 1996.
. A. E. Nir and N. Kranot, "School Principal's Leadership Style and Teachers' Self-Efficacy," Planning and Changing, vol. 37, pp. 205-218, 2006.
. [T. Calik, F. Sezgin, H. Kavgaci, and A. Cagatay Kilinc, "Examination of Relationships between Instructional Leadership of School Principals and Self-Efficacy of Teachers and Collective Teacher Efficacy," Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, vol. 12, pp. 2498-2504, 2012.
. M. S. Bellibas and Y. Liu, "Multilevel analysis of the relationship between principals’ perceived practices of instructional leadership and teachers’ self-efficacy perceptions," Journal of Educational Administration, 2017.
. J. Corkett, B. Hatt, and T. Benevides, "Student and teacher self-efficacy and the connection to reading and writing," Canadian Journal of Education, vol. 34, pp. 65-98, 2011.
. A.-Y. Kim, "Teacher efficacy: The key factor of teacher professionalism," Korean Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 26, pp. 63-84, 2012.
. R. M. Klassen and V. M. Tze, "Teachers’ self-efficacy, personality, and teaching effectiveness: A meta-analysis," Educational research review, vol. 12, pp. 59-76, 2014.
. A. Bandura, "Guide for constructing self-efficacy scales," Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents, vol. 5, pp. 307-337, 2006.
. M. Tschannen-Moran and A. W. Hoy, "Teacher efficacy: Capturing an elusive construct," Teaching and teacher education, vol. 17, pp. 783-805, 2001.
. K. L. Donald, "Evaluation of self-reported teacher efficacy and minority achievement in middle school," Capella University, 2009.
. F. S. Mohamadi and H. Asadzadeh, "Testing the mediating role of teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs in the relationship between sources of efficacy information and students achievement," Asia Pacific Education Review, vol. 13, pp. 427-433, 2012.
. C. A. Wolters and S. G. Daugherty, "Goal structures and teachers' sense of efficacy: Their relation and association to teaching experience and academic level," Journal of educational psychology, vol. 99, p. 181, 2007.
. L. Darling-Hammond, "Teacher quality and student achievement," Education policy analysis archives, vol. 8, p. 1, 2000.
. Y. Guo, C. M. Connor, Y. Yang, A. D. Roehrig, and F. J. Morrison, "The effects of teacher qualification, teacher self-efficacy, and classroom practices on fifth graders' literacy outcomes," The Elementary School Journal, vol. 113, pp. 3-24, 2012.
. I. Throndsen and A. Turmo, "Primary mathematics teachers’ goal orientations and student achievement," Instructional Science, vol. 41, pp. 307-322, 2013.
. H. R. Milner IV, "Understanding urban education from the outside in and inside out," ed: Sage Publications Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA, 2012.
. D. Antonioni, "The effects of feedback accountability on upward appraisal ratings," Personnel Psychology, vol. 47, pp. 349-356, 1994.
. D. M. Herold and D. L. Fields, "Making sense of subordinate feedback for leadership development: Confounding effects of job role and organizational rewards," Group & Organization Management, vol. 29, pp. 686-703, 2004.
. S. T. Phipps, L. C. Prieto, and E. N. Ndinguri, "Teaching an old dog new tricks: Investigating how age, ability, and self efficacy influence intentions to learn and learning among participants in adult education," Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, vol. 17, p. 13, 2013.
. T. Shazadi, S. Khatoon, S. Aziz, and H. Hassan, "Determining Factors Affecting Teachers' Self-Efficacy at Secondary School Level," Language in India, vol. 11, 2011.
. J. E. Rockoff, "The impact of individual teachers on student achievement: Evidence from panel data," American economic review, vol. 94, pp. 247-252, 2004.
. C. T. Clotfelter, H. F. Ladd, and J. L. Vigdor, "Teacher credentials and student achievement: Longitudinal analysis with student fixed effects," Economics of Education Review, vol. 26, pp. 673-682, 2007.
. M. D. Toland and R. De Ayala, "A multilevel factor analysis of students’ evaluations of teaching," Educational and Psychological Measurement, vol. 65, pp. 272-296, 2005.
. M. Tschannen-Moran and A. W. Hoy, "The differential antecedents of self-efficacy beliefs of novice and experienced teachers," Teaching and teacher Education, vol. 23, pp. 944-956, 2007.
. C. Fornell and D. F. Larcker, "Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics," ed: Sage Publications Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA, 1981.
. D. W. Fiske and D. T. Campbell, "Citations do not solve problems," Psychological Bulletin, vol. 112, p. 393, 1992.
. K. Krippendorff, Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology: Sage publications, 2018.
. M. H. R. Howladar, S. Rahman, and A. Uddin, "Deviant workplace behavior and job performance: The moderating effect of transformational leadership," Iranian Journal of Management Studies, vol. 11, pp. 147-183, 2018.
. P. T. Ashton and R. B. Webb, Making a difference: Teachers' sense of efficacy and student achievement: Longman Publishing Group, 1986.
How to Cite
Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the following terms.