Distances to Planetary Nebulae Using Astrometric Data of Gaia DR2
AbstractThe present work is dedicated to deriving the distances of Galactic planetary nebulae using the parallax measurements of Gaia Data Release 2 (DR2). By applying an accurate calibrating sample of distances derived from Gaia DR2, we aim to examine the consistency between Gaia DR2 trigonometric distance and prior trigonometric distances as well as other individual methods usually used for distance determination. We started by searching the literatures for confirmed planetary nebulae (PNe), known up to this time, followed by discussing the method used for selecting PNe central stars from Gaia DR2. We were able to identify 2170 Gaia DR2 sources classified as PNe, from which we ignored all sources with negative parallax values, unmeasured parallax, and unmeasured colours. Only true CSs with parallax uncertainties less than 25% were adopted. As a result, a sample composed of roughly 200 PNe with highly accurate parallax measurements was selected. By comparing Gaia DR2 trigonometric distances with the previous ground-based trigonometric distances and those obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope we found that: (1) The ground-based trigonometric distances obtained by Pottasch (1996)  and Gutiérrez-Moreno et al. (1999)  perfectly matched Gaia DR2 distances. However, the trigonometric distances given by Harris et al. (2007)  show somewhat smaller values; (2) The space-based distances, using HST , are slightly higher than that of Gaia DR2 with an average ratio of 1.1. By comparing Gaia DR2 trigonometric distances with other individual distance methods we concluded that the spectroscopic method is the best subsequent method for determining the PN distance after the trigonometric method. Applying other methods should take with care especially the gravity method.
. S. R. Pottasch. “Local space density and formation rate of planetary nebulae.” Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 307, pp. 561-578. Mar. 1996.
. Walter J. Maciel and Roberto D. D. Costa. “PN and galactic chemical evolution.” Symposium-International Astronomical Union, vol. 209, pp. 551-558. Cambridge University Press, 2003.
. I. S. Shklovsky “A new scale of distances of planetary nebulae.” Astron. Zh., vol. 33, pp. 222-235. 1956.
. D. J. Frew, Q. A. Parker, I. S. Bojičić. “The Hα surface brightness–radius relation: a robust statistical distance indicator for planetary nebulae.” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 455, pp. 1459-88. Jan 2016
. H. C. Harris, C. C. Dahn, B. Canzian, H. H. Guetter, S. K. Leggett, S. E. Levine, et al. “Trigonometric parallaxes of central stars of planetary nebulae.” The Astronomical Journal, vol. 113, pp. 631-638, Feb. 2007.
. A. Acker, A. Fresneau, S. R. Pottasch, G. Jasniewicz. “A sample of planetary nebulae observed by HIPPARCOS.” Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 337, pp. 253-260. Sep. 1998.
. S. R. Pottasch, and A. Acker. “A comparison of Hipparcos parallaxes with planetary nebulae spectroscopic distances.” Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 329, pp. L5-L8. Jan. 1998.
. W. A. Weidmann, and R. Gamen. “Central stars of planetary nebulae: New spectral classifications and catalogue.” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 526, A6. Feb. 2011.
. W. A. Weidmann, and R. Gamen. “Central stars of planetary nebulae-II. New OB-type and emission-line stars.” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 531, A172. Jul. 2011.
. W. A. Weidmann, R. H. Méndez, and R. Gamen. “Improved spectral descriptions of planetary nebulae central stars.” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 579, A86. Jul. 2015.
. W. A. Weidmann, R. Gamen, D. Mast, C. Fariña, G. Gimeno, E.O. Schmidt, et al. “Towards an improvement in the spectral description of central stars of planetary nebulae.” Astronomy & Astrophysics vol. 614, A135. Jun. 2018.
. K. DePew, Q. A. Parker, B. Miszalski, O. De Marco, D. J. Frew, A. Acker, et al. “Newly discovered Wolf–Rayet and weak emission-line central stars of planetary nebulae.” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 414, pp. 2812-2827. Jul. 2011.
. Quentin A. Parker, Ivan S. Bojicic, and David J. Frew. “HASH: the Hong Kong/AAO/Strasbourg Hα planetary nebula database.” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. Vol. 728, p. 032008. Jul. 2016.
. R. Tylenda, A. Acker, B. Stenholm, F. Gleizes, B. Raytchev. “The B and V magnitudes of the central stars of planetary nebulae.” Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement Series, vol. 89, pp. 77-90. Jul. 1991.
. A. Gutiérrez‐Moreno, C. Anguita, P. Loyola, and H. Moreno. "Trigonometric distances of planetary nebulae." Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, vol. 111, pp. 1163-1168. Sep. 1999.
. G. Benedict, B. E. McArthur, R. Napiwotzki, T. E. Harrison, H. C. Harris, E. Nelan, et al. "Astrometry with the Hubble Space Telescope: Trigonometric Parallaxes of Planetary Nebula Nuclei NGC 6853, NGC 7293, Abell 31, and DeHt 5." The Astronomical Journal, vol. 138.6, pp. 1969-1984. Dec. (2009).
. Alaa Ali, H. A. Ismail, and Z. Alsolami. “A new statistical distance scale for planetary nebulae.” Astrophysics and Space Science, vol. 357, pp. 21. Apr. 2015.
. George H. Jacoby, and Griet van de Steene. “Identification of an old planetary nebula around the PG 1159 star: PG 1520+ 525.” The Astronomical Journal, vol. 110, pp. 1285, Sep. 1995.
Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- By submitting the processing fee, it is understood that the author has agreed to our terms and conditions which may change from time to time without any notice.
- It should be clear for authors that the Editor In Chief is responsible for the final decision about the submitted papers; have the right to accept\reject any paper. The Editor In Chief will choose any option from the following to review the submitted papers:A. send the paper to two reviewers, if the results were negative by one reviewer and positive by the other one; then the editor may send the paper for third reviewer or he take immediately the final decision by accepting\rejecting the paper. The Editor In Chief will ask the selected reviewers to present the results within 7 working days, if they were unable to complete the review within the agreed period then the editor have the right to resend the papers for new reviewers using the same procedure. If the Editor In Chief was not able to find suitable reviewers for certain papers then he have the right to accept\reject the paper.B. sends the paper to a selected editorial board member(s). C. the Editor In Chief himself evaluates the paper.
- Author will take the responsibility what so ever if any copyright infringement or any other violation of any law is done by publishing the research work by the author
- Before publishing, author must check whether this journal is accepted by his employer, or any authority he intends to submit his research work. we will not be responsible in this matter.
- If at any time, due to any legal reason, if the journal stops accepting manuscripts or could not publish already accepted manuscripts, we will have the right to cancel all or any one of the manuscripts without any compensation or returning back any kind of processing cost.
- The cost covered in the publication fees is only for online publication of a single manuscript.