Household Drinking water contamination by Escherichia Coli and prevalence of diarrhoea in children under five years in Baringo County, Kenya
AbstractEscherichia Coli (E. Coli) is widely used as an indicator of microbial water quality. Normally domiciled in human intestines, contamination of drinking water by this bacteria occurs through inappropriate sanitation and poor water handling practices. While some strains of E. Coli are harmless, others are pathogenic and can lead to diarrhoea of varying severity both in children and adults, characterised by abdominal cramps, vomiting, bloody diarrhoea. Diarrhoea remains a major cause of death among children below 5 years. This study evaluated the extent of household drinking water contamination by E. Coli and its relationship to diarrhoea incidences in children <5 years in Mogotio and Marigat sub-counties of the largely semi-arid Baringo county in Kenya. A cross-sectional survey was used to randomly select 178 households with children below 5 years and information sought on water sources and diarrheal occurrence. Water samples were collected at the point of use and analysed using the field based Compartment Bag Test (CBT). Findings show a significant relationship between E. Coli presence and diarrhoea in under-fives. Water samples from households using water from surface water sources were more likely to have a higher E. Coli MPN/100ml count compared to those from protected sources. There is need provide improved sources of water in the community and sensitise it on treatment and safe handling of water at point of use.
. WHO: Preventing diarrhoea through better water, sanitation and hygiene: exposures and impacts in low- and middle-income countries. WHO, Geneva; 2014, p18-19.
. WHO: Diarrhoeal disease: Fact sheet 2 May 2017: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/diarrhoeal-disease (accessed: April 2020)
. Montgomery M A. and Elimelech M: Water And Sanitation in Developing Countries: Including Health in the Equation. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41, 1, 2007: 17–24
. UNU-IWEH: Global Water Crisis: The Facts United Nations University Institute for Water, Environment and Health. (2017). ISBN: 978-92-808-6083-2
. WHO: Guidelines for drinking-water quality: Fourth Edition incorporating the first addendum. World Health Organization; Geneva: 2017.
. Wright J, Gundry S, Conroy R. Household drinking water in developing countries: a systematic review of microbiological contamination between source and point-of-use. Trop Med Int Health. 2004;9(1):106-117.
. Wolf J, Prüss-Ustün A, Cumming O, Bartram J, et al. Assessing the impact of drinking water and sanitation on diarrhoeal disease in low- and middle-income settings: systematic review and meta-regression. Trop Med Int Health. 2014;19(8):928-942.
. Baringo County Intergated Development Plan, 2013- 2017.
. Calow, R.C., MacDonald A.M, Nicol A.L, Robins N.S, and Kebede S The struggle for water: drought, water security and rural livelihoods. Groundwater Systems and Water Quality Programme Commissioned Report British Geological Survey Technical Report. Wallingford, UK: BGS. CR/02/226N. (2002).
. Gronewold, A.D., McMahan K, Sobsey M. The compartment bag test (CBT) for enumerating faecal indicator bacteria: basis for design and interpretation of results. Science of the Total Environment. (2017). 587, 102-107.
. Abdelgalili EB, Ahmed M, Adam J, Hamid S, Afsatou T, Elshiekh I, Natasha P. (2019). Water source quality testing in Gezira State, Sudan, using the compartment bag test. Appl Water Sci. 2019;9(8) 193. doi:10.1007/s13201-019-1079-5. PMID: 31700764
. Wang, A., McMahan, L., Rutstein, S., Stauber, C., Reyes, J., & Sobsey, M. D. Household Microbial Water Quality Testing in a Peruvian Demographic and Health Survey: Evaluation of the Compartment Bag Test for Escherichia Coli. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 2017; 96(4), 970–975.
. Aquagenx. Aquagenx® CBT EC+TC (Compartment Bag Test) Most Probable Number (MPN) Kit Instructions for Use: Drinking Water. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. | www.aquagenx.com .2016. (accessed: 03/02/2020)
. George, I & Anzil, A & Servais, P: Quantification of fecal coliform inputs to aquatic systems through soil leaching. Water research. 2004;. 38. 611-8. 10.1016/j.watres. 2003.10.022.
. Jamieson R., Joy D.M., Lee H., Kostaschuk R., Gordon R. Transport and deposition of sediment-associated Escherichia Coli in natural streams. Water Res J. 2005; 39:2665–2675.
. Schmidt, W and Cairncross, S. Household Water Treatment in Poor Populations: Is There Enough Evidence for Scaling Up Now?. Environmental science & technology. 2009; 43. 986-92. 10.1021/es802232w.
. Luby, S. P., Halder, A. K., Huda, T. M., Unicomb, L., Islam, M. S., Arnold, B. F., & Johnston, R. B. Microbiological Contamination of Drinking Water Associated with Subsequent Child Diarrhea. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 2015; 93(5), 904–911.
. Heitzinger, K., Rocha, C. A., Quick, R. E., Montano, S. M., Tilley, D. H., Jr, Mock, C. N., and Hawes, S. E. "Improved" But Not Necessarily Safe: An Assessment of Fecal Contamination of Household Drinking Water in Rural Peru. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene. 2015; 93(3), 501–508.
. Kaper, J., Nataro, J. and Mobley, H. Pathogenic Escherichia Coli. Nat Rev Microbiol, 2004; 2, 123–140
Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- By submitting the processing fee, it is understood that the author has agreed to our terms and conditions which may change from time to time without any notice.
- It should be clear for authors that the Editor In Chief is responsible for the final decision about the submitted papers; have the right to accept\reject any paper. The Editor In Chief will choose any option from the following to review the submitted papers:A. send the paper to two reviewers, if the results were negative by one reviewer and positive by the other one; then the editor may send the paper for third reviewer or he take immediately the final decision by accepting\rejecting the paper. The Editor In Chief will ask the selected reviewers to present the results within 7 working days, if they were unable to complete the review within the agreed period then the editor have the right to resend the papers for new reviewers using the same procedure. If the Editor In Chief was not able to find suitable reviewers for certain papers then he have the right to accept\reject the paper.B. sends the paper to a selected editorial board member(s). C. the Editor In Chief himself evaluates the paper.
- Author will take the responsibility what so ever if any copyright infringement or any other violation of any law is done by publishing the research work by the author
- Before publishing, author must check whether this journal is accepted by his employer, or any authority he intends to submit his research work. we will not be responsible in this matter.
- If at any time, due to any legal reason, if the journal stops accepting manuscripts or could not publish already accepted manuscripts, we will have the right to cancel all or any one of the manuscripts without any compensation or returning back any kind of processing cost.
- The cost covered in the publication fees is only for online publication of a single manuscript.