The IMPACT OF DIGITAL COMMUNICATION DEVICES ON FACE-TO-FACE INTERACTIONS IN PUBLIC SPACES.

THE CASE STUDY OF COFFEEHOUSES IN CAIRO, EGYPT.

  • Ehab Shawky Teacher Assistant in the Architectural Department of Arab Academy for Science, Technology and Maritime Transportation, Heliopolis, Cairo, Egypt
  • Manal Abou Professor, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering Shoubra, Benha University, Arab Academy for Science and Technology, Cairo (current), Egypt.
  • Hala Associate Professor, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering Arab Academy for Science and Technology, Cairo, Egypt.
Keywords: Digital Communication Devices, Face-To-Face Interactions, Sense of Space, Social Interactions, Physical space, Coffeehouses

Abstract

In public spaces, social interactions turned from physical interactions into virtual interaction (Oldenburg, 1999).  Physical interaction, face-to-face interaction, weakens when people start to use Digital Communication Devices (DCD) in the physical space (Drago, 2015).  The aim of the proposed study is to review the impact of DCD usage on social interactions in public spaces in Egypt, and how does time spent on DCD affect face-to-face interaction.  A quantitative study will be applied to Coffeehouses in Cairo as places for leisure.  Data will be collected through observations, interviews, and questionnaires to explore how time spent in physical spaces with the integration of virtual space; how DCD changes the interaction between people and how people experience the physical space.  Each coffeehouse listed in the study was observed for twelve hours, a total of thirty-six hours.  Eighteen interviews were conducted and surveys were collected from sixty patrons to reveal patron's attitudes toward the physical and social aspects of the coffeehouse as well as their feelings regarding the community in which they live.

References

Goffman E (1963) Behavior in Public Spaces. New York: The Free Press.

Castells M. 2000. Materials for an exploratory theory of the network society. British Journal of Sociology 51(1): 63–91.

Rafael LV (2003) The cell phone and the crowd: messianic politics in the contemporary Philippines. Public Culture 15(3): 399–425.

Oldenburg, R. (1999). The great good place. New York: Marlowe & Company.

Mitchell D (2003) The Right to The City: Social Justice and the Fight for Public Space. New York: Guilford.

Castells M. (1996) The Rise of the Network Society. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Goffman E (1967) Interaction Ritual: Essays on Face-to-Face Interaction. New York: Pantheon.

Drago, E. (2015). The effect of technology on face-to-face communication. Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications, 6(1), 13–19.

Turkle, S. (2012). Alone together: Why we expect more from technology and less from each other. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Przybylski, A. K., & Weinstein, N. (2013). Can you connect with me now? How the presence of mobile communication technology influences face-to-face conversation quality. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 30, 237-246.

Misra, S., Cheng, L., Genevie, J., & Yuan, M. (2016). The iPhone Effect: The Quality of In-Person Social Interactions in the Presence of Mobile Devices. Environment and Behavior, 48(2), 275–298.

Turkle, S. Reclaiming Conversation: The Power of Talk in A Digital Age; Penguin: New York, NY, USA, 2015.

González, V. M., & Mark, G. (2004, April). Constant, constant, multi-tasking craziness: Managing multiple working spheres. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems, New York, NY.

Mark, G., González, V. M., & Harris, J. (2005, April). No task left behind? Examining the nature of fragmented work. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems, New York, NY.

Mark, G., Gudith, D., & Klocke, U. (2008, April). The cost of interrupted work: More speed and stress. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, New York, NY.

Renaud, K., Ramsay, J., & Hair, M. (2006). “You’ve got e-mail!” Shall I deal with it now? Electronic mail from the recipient’s perspective. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 21, 313-332.

Carr, N. (2011). The shallows: What the Internet is doing to our brains. New York, NY: W.W. Norton.

Foerde, K., Knowlton, B. J., & Poldrack, R. A. (2006). Modulation of competing memory systems by distraction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103, 11778-11783.

Misra, S., & Stokols, D. (2012). A typology of people-environment relationships in the digital age. Technology in Society, 34, 311-325.

Ophir, E., Nass, C., & Wagner, A. D. (2009). Cognitive control in media multitaskers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106, 15583-15587

Lefebvre, H. (1974) The Production of Space, trans, D.N. Smith, London: Blackwell

Steele, F. (1981) The sense of place, MA: CBI Publishing.

Castells M. (1998) The Information Age: Economy, Society, and Culture, vol. 3: End of Millennium. Oxford: Blackwell

Chen, X. (2006) Place‐making in Virtual Environment, Ph.D. University of California, Berkeley

Moran, R. (1993) The Electronic Home: Social and Spatial Aspects. A Scoping Report, Dublin: European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions.

Manovich, Lev (2002) ‘The Poetics of Augmented Space’, URL (consulted January 2006): http://www.manovich.net/DOCS/augmented_space.doc

Gergen, K. (2002). The challenge of the absent presence. In J. E. Katz & M. Aakhus (Eds.), Perpetual Contact: Mobile Communication, Private Talk, Public Performance

Kraut, R., Patterson, M., Lundmark, V., Kiesler, S., Mukhopadhyay, T., & Scherlis, W. (1998). Internet paradox: A social technology that reduces social involvement and psychological well-being? American Psychologist.

Castells M. 2000. Materials for an exploratory theory of the network society. British Journal of Sociology 51(1): 63–91.

Harris, K. (2003) ‘Keep Your Distance: Remote Connection’, Journal of Community Work and Development 4(4): 6–28.

Geser, H. (2006). Is the cell phone undermining the social order? Understanding mobile technology from a sociological perspective. Knowledge, Technology & Policy, 19, 8-18.

Humphreys, L. (2005). Cell phones in public: Social interactions in a wireless era. New Media & Society, 7, 810-833.

Bar-Tura, A. (2011). The coffee house as a public sphere: Brewing social change. In Parker, S. F., Austin, M. (Eds.), Coffee and philosophy (pp. 89-99). Malden, MA: Wiley.

Misra, S., & Genevie, J. (2013, May). The experience of place: How digital technologies are restructuring public places. Paper presented at the Environmental Design Research Association, Providence, RI.

Drouin, M., Kaiser, D. H., & Miller, D. A. (2012). Phantom vibrations among undergraduates: Prevalence and associated psychological characteristics. Computers in Human Behavior, 28, 1490-1496.

Lee, S. (1999) Private uses in public spaces: a study of internet café. New Media & Society, 1, 3, 331–350.

Oldenburg, R. (1989) The Great Good Place: Cafes, Coffee Shops, Community Centers, Beauty Parlors, General Stores, Bars, Hangout and How They Get You Through the Day. New York: Paragon House.

Fortunati, L (Ed.). 2002. Italy, Stereotypes, True and False. Cambridge, UK: University of Cambridge Press.

Cooper-Marcus, C. & Francis, C. (1998). People places. New York: Wiley & Sons.

Lawrence, D. (1992). Transcendence of Place. In I. Altman & S. Low (Eds.), Place attachment. New York: Plenum Press.

Hummon, D. (1992). Community attachment. In I. Altman & S. Low (Eds.), Place attachment. New York: Plenum Press.

Przybylski, A. K., & Weinstein, N. (2012). Can you connect with me now? How the presence of mobile communication technology influences face-to-face conversation quality. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 30(3), 237–246.

Cheng, Kai-Feng. 2011. “Social Interactions in Computer-Mediated Public Spaces.” Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Philosophy, the University of California-Berkley Retrieved from ProQuest, Thesis/Dissertation Database, AAI3616208.

H. Proshansky, W_ lttclson, and L. Rivlin, "Freedom of Choice and Behavior in a Physical Selling: Some Bask Assump¬tion ... in Environmental psychology Man and His Physical Setting {New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. 1970).

J. Archea. "The Place of Architectural Factors in Behavioural Theories of Privacy: •Journal of Social Issues 33. no. 3 ( 1977)

A.Mehrabian and S. G. Diamond. '"Seating Arrangement and Conversation,"' Sociometry 34, no. 2 (1971): 28 1 -89.

Anacleto, J. & Fels, S. (2013). Adoption and Appropriation: A Design Process from HCI Research at a Brazilian Neurological Hospital. In INTERACT'13: Proceedings of the 14th IFIP TC13 international conference on Human-computer interaction, 356-363.

Harris, P., Brown, B. & Werner, C, (1996). Privacy regulation and place attachment: Predicting attachments to a student family housing facility. Journal of Environmental Psychology,16, 287-301.

Oldenburg, R. (2000). Celebrating the third place: Inspiring stories about the "great good places" at the heart of our communities. New York, NY: Marlowe & Company.

Habermas, Jürgen. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. Thomas Burger and Frederick Lawrence, trans. Cambridge, Mass.: The Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, 1991.

El-Ghitany, G.,1997, From What happened in the Land of Egypt (in Arabic; Mema Gara fii Bar Masr), Cairo: Nahdet Masr.

Lane, E. W., and Thompsom, J., 2003. The Manners and Customs of the Modern

El-Tayeb, M., 2009. Aly Malek Coffeehouse (in Arabic: Qhwet Aly Malek) Cairo Dar Sharkyat.

Hopwood, D., 1982. Egypt: Politics and Society 1945-1990. New York: Geroge Allen & Unwin.

Abaza, M., 2006. The Changing Consumer Culture of Modern Egypt: Cairo’s Urban Reshaping. Cairo: AUC Press.

Peterson, M. A., 2011. Connected in Cairo, Growing Cosmopolitan in the Modern Middle East. Cairo: AUC Press.

Waxman, L. 2006. "The Coffee Shop: Social and Physical Factors Influencing Place Attachment," Journal of Interior Design (31:3), pp. 35-53.

Published
2020-02-12
Section
Articles