Effects of Farmer-Herder Conflicts on Socio-Economic Development of the Local Communities in Mutitu Sub County of Kitui County, Kenya 1963-2013
AbstractThree words, displacement, destitution and death, summarize what is happening in Mutitu Sub County of Kitui County. Recurrent farmer-herder conflicts have been a feature of the region since pre- colonial period. The participants have been the Akamba farmers and Somali and/or Orma herders. In the post-independent era their frequency has intensified. As a result, they have undermined efforts to increase food production in the region. As such, the conflicts have negatively impacted on communities’ livelihoods as well as national stability and development, as the atmosphere they have created has in the long run lowered the quality of life of the resident communities in the study area. In view of this, Peaceful coexistence must thus be sought after by all means. To achieve this, there is need to integrate resident communities to partner with the government and other stakeholders in order to reverse the status quo to the benefit of the resident communities. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of the farmer-herder conflicts on the socio-economic development of the local communities in Mutitu Sub County. The study was guided by the theory of structural violence by John Galtung it illuminates how structural inequalities lead to conflict which systematically deny some people their basic human needs which in turn undermine their socio-economic development. Simple random sampling technique was used to select a sample of 200 respondents. Purposive sampling procedure was then used to select key informants who included; community members, community elders, members of the Area Peace Development committees, state security agents, Non Governmental Organizations and religious leaders. The study used Questionnaire, interview schedules, FGDs and archival sources to get Primary data. Document analysis was done to give secondary data related to the study. The data was then analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results were presented in narration form. The study found out that the farmer-herder conflict led to many effects which in turn have led to loss of livelihoods hence, undermining socio-economic development of local communities in Mutitu Sub County of Kitui County. It is expected that the outcomes of this study will go a long way into building the historiography on conflicts in Kenya, East Africa and the continent as a whole, inspiring other scholars and researchers and acting as reference resource book for other scholars.
. C. Cramer. Civil War is Not a Stupid Thing: Accounting for Violence in Developing Countries. London: Hurst & Company, 2006, pp. 4
. P. Collier et al: “Breaking the Conflict trap: Civil War and Development Policy”. Washington, D.C. A World Bank Policy Research Report (26121), pp 1. 2003.
. P. Justino. “On the Links between Violent Conflict and Household Poverty: How Much Do We Really Know?” United Kingdom: Institute of Development Studies. July 2006. Pp 4-7.
. M.K. Juma. “Unveiling Women as Pillars of Peace Building in Communities Fractured by conflict in Kenya”. An Interim Report for Management Development and Governance Division Bureau for Development Policy, UNDP, May 2000. Pp. 9-14
. M. Adams. and M. Bradbury, Conflicts and Development: Organizational Development in Conflict Situation. Oxfam Discussion Paper N4. Oxfam UK and Ireland) Oxford. Pp 37. 1995
. D. Seddon., and J. Sumberg, (2001). Conflict between Farmers and Herders in Africa: An Analysis: Available At Www.Nrinternational.Co.Uk and Retrieved On October, 6th 2011. Pp 1-2. 2011.
. J. Mutisya. “The Role Of Women In Peace Building And Reconstruction. An Analysis Of Mwitika Region In Kitui County From 1992-2012”. Kenyatta University. 2015
.CARITUS KITUI. The Akamba and Somali Conflict. Mwingi Workshop. (2012) Malalani – Twambui Area. Ideal Palace, Kitui County. 2012.
. K. Mulatya. CARITAS KITUI Report for Kamba and Somali Conflict Malalani Location in Kitui County. August, 2012. Pp 2
. Ochieng, W. R (1985). A modern History of Kenya. Nairobi: MacMillan Educational Publishers.
. Were, G.S. & Wilson, D.A. (1987). East Africa Through A ThousandYears. Nairobi: Evans Brother (Kenya) Limited.
. V. Simiyu. “Land and Politics in Ukambani From the End of the 19th Century Up To 1933”. Présence Africaine Editions. No. 89. 1974, pp. 101-146.
. M.K. Korir. “History of Environmental Management in Kenya. Gaining Ground: Institutional Innovations in Land Use Management in Kenya” in, A. Kiririo. and C. Juma. (Eds).Rev Edition, Nairobi. Acts Press, African Centre for Technology Studies, 1991.
. CICERO Report 2006:01 Vulnerability to Climate Stress – Local and Regional Perspectives Proceedings of Two Workshops January 27-28, 2005, World Agroforestry Centre, Gigiri, Nairobi and February 14, 2005.
. Kenya National Archives. Report on Government Efforts on Soil Conservation.
. B. Berman. Control and Crisis in Colonial Kenya: the Dialectic of Domination. london James Currey. 1989.
. S. Eriksen, S., F.N. Gachathi., B. Muoki., B. Ochieng, B. and Owuor. “Synergies in Biodiversity Conservation and Climate Change Adaptation: The Case of Hilltop Forests in Kitui, Kenya”. In, Putting People back into Nature. Lessons from Savannas and Dry Forests, Mistry, J. And Berardi A. (Eds). UK. Ashgate, Aldershot. 2006. Pp. 187–226.
. D. Mwendwa. Challenges facing curriculum implementation of inclusive education in public secondary schools in mutitu sub county of kitui county,kenya. 2014.
. F.E. O.Opiyo., S.M., Mureithi, & R.K Ngugi,. “The Influence of Water Availability on Pastoralist’s Resource Use in Kitui and Mwingi Districts of Kenya.” Journal of Human Ecology. 35(1): 43-52. 2011.
. J. Galtug. ‘Cultural Violence’. Journal of Peace Research . 1990. 291-305.
. A. Sen. Development as Freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1999. pp. 32
. Sengupta, A. Second Report of the Independent Expert on the Right to Development, To the Human Right Commission, A/55/306
. S. Eriksen., and J. Lind,. (2006) “Adaptation as a Political Process: Adjusting to Drought and Conflict in Kenya’s Dry lands. Environmental Management”. 43(5).817835.Doi:10.1007/S00267008-9189-0. May 14. 201
. B. Owuor., E. Siri. and W. Mauta. Adapting to Climate Change in a Dryland Mountain Environment in Kenya: Mountain Research and Development, 25(4):310-315. Published By: International Mountain Society DOI: Http://Dx.Doi.Org/10.1659/02764741(2005)025[0310:ATCCIA]2.0.CO;URL:Http://Www.Bioone.Org/Doi/Full/10.1659/0276-4741%282005%29025%5B0310%3AATCCIA %5D2.0.CO%3B2
. A. J. Orodho,. Essentials of Educational and Social Sciences Research Method. Nairobi: Masola Publishers. 2003.
. Kitui County Village Bill (2014): Nairobi: Bill for Introduction into Kitui County Assembly. Special Issue. Nov 2014. Pp 6-12
. M.D. Gall, J.P. Gall, and W.R. Borg. Educational Research: An Introduction ;( 8th Edition). New York: Pearson Education Inc. 2006.
. O. Mugenda, and A. Mugenda. Research Methods; Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches. Nairobi. ACTS. 2003.
. L. Cohen., L. Manion., & K. Morrison,. Research Methods In Education. London: Routledge. 2007
. F. Warurii,. “Inter-Ethnic Conflicts: Trends, Causes, Effects and Interventions in Rumuruti Division of Laikipia County, Kenya (1963 – 2010) ” Master Thesis. Kenyatta University. 2015.
. Fearon, J., Laitin, D. (2003). Ethnicity, Insurgency and Civil War, American Political Science Review, 97 (1), 75-90.
. A.B. Yahaya and M. Tinab. “Socio-economic Effects of Armed Conflict on Women and Children in Bawku.” Uds International Journal of Development [Udsijd] Volume 2 No. 1, August, 2015 pp 148-159
. M. Gamel, “The Effects of Chieftaincy Conflicts on Local Development: The Case of The Bawku East Municipality.” Master Thesis. University of Tromso, Norway. 2008.
. K. E. Omosa,. “Impacts of Water Conflict on Pastoral Livelihoods: The Case of Wajir District in Kenya”. Manitoba: International Institute for Sustainable Development. pp.8 2005
. I.M. Abbas, I. M. “No Retreat, No Surrender: Conflict for Survival between Fulani Pastoralists and Farmers in Northern Nigeria”. European Scientific Journal 8(1), Pp. 331-346. 2000.
. Shemyakina, O. “The effect of armed conflict on accumulation of schooling: Results from Tajikistan”. Journal of Development Economics, 95(2), pp. 186-200. 2011.
. P. Justino. and P. Verwimp. (2006) “Poverty Dynamics, Conflict and Convergence in Rwanda”, Working Paper No. 16, Households in Conflict Network, Institute of Development Studies. Brighton (http://www.hicn.org/papers/wp16.pdf) . [June 19. 2017]
. J. Kariuki. Peace Building among the Urban Poor of Mathare Informal Settlement in Nairobi County: The Intervention of the Anglican Church of Kenya, Diocese of Nairobi 1999-2009. Masters Thesis. Kenyatta University. 2016
Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- By submitting the processing fee, it is understood that the author has agreed to our terms and conditions which may change from time to time without any notice.
- It should be clear for authors that the Editor In Chief is responsible for the final decision about the submitted papers; have the right to accept\reject any paper. The Editor In Chief will choose any option from the following to review the submitted papers:A. send the paper to two reviewers, if the results were negative by one reviewer and positive by the other one; then the editor may send the paper for third reviewer or he take immediately the final decision by accepting\rejecting the paper. The Editor In Chief will ask the selected reviewers to present the results within 7 working days, if they were unable to complete the review within the agreed period then the editor have the right to resend the papers for new reviewers using the same procedure. If the Editor In Chief was not able to find suitable reviewers for certain papers then he have the right to accept\reject the paper.B. sends the paper to a selected editorial board member(s). C. the Editor In Chief himself evaluates the paper.
- Author will take the responsibility what so ever if any copyright infringement or any other violation of any law is done by publishing the research work by the author
- Before publishing, author must check whether this journal is accepted by his employer, or any authority he intends to submit his research work. we will not be responsible in this matter.
- If at any time, due to any legal reason, if the journal stops accepting manuscripts or could not publish already accepted manuscripts, we will have the right to cancel all or any one of the manuscripts without any compensation or returning back any kind of processing cost.
- The cost covered in the publication fees is only for online publication of a single manuscript.