Biotechnology as a Change Agent for National Development: Review in The Gambia
AbstractBiotechnology is an important tool which can ensure the production of crop that will have longer shelf live, drought resistant, high saline tolerance, ability to withstand adverse conditions among others. The Gambia among the low-income West African countries, where agriculture is practiced by two-thirds of its citizens and couple with global population which is now around 7 billion predicted to rise to 9 billion by 2050, the Gambian government really needs to act fast and positively in welcoming genetically modified crops if it’s to be able to feed its population now roughly around 2 million people. Application of Biotechnology in crop and animal farming through genetic engineering has led to the development of crops with desirable characteristics such as crop varieties that cope better with drought and salinity, crops that more resistant to pest and diseases and crops that use nutrients more efficiently. This can help transform The Gambia into a country with a robust agriculture capable of not feeding the nation but also generating substantial foreign exchange. Through Agricultural biotechnology, this looming crisis can be averted eradicating malnutrition by ensuring food self-sufficiency through the production of resistant crops to pests and diseases, having longer shelf-lives, higher nutritional content and palatability, higher yields and early maturity period, tolerant to adverse weather and soil conditions. Achieving food sufficiency which is a direct consequence of a flourishing agricultural sector will facilitate a shift from other natural resources as a source of foreign exchange thus promoting economic diversity through agriculture.
. Acharya, T., Kennedy, R., Daar, A.S., Singer, P.A., (2004). Biotechnology to Improve Health in Developing Countries - A Review. Joint Centre for Bioethics, University of Toronto, Canada. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02762004000400001
. Arancon, R.A.D., Lin, C.S.K., Chan, K.M., Kwan, T.H., Luque, R. (2013): Advances on wastevalorization: new horizons for a more sustainable society. Energy SciEng, 1: 53-71. 10.1002/ese3.9.
. Bojang, K.A., Milligan, P.J., Pinder, M., Vigneron, L., Alloueche, A., Kester, K.E.,,Ballou, W.R., et al. (2001). Malaria Vaccine Trial Team 2001. Efficacy of RTS, S/AS02 malaria vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum infection in semi-immune adult men in The Gambia: a randomised trial. Lancet 358:
. Carr, K.,(1999). Cuban biotechnology treads a lonely path. Nature. 1999;398
. Climate Change 2007 – Mitigation of Climate Change Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC (978 0521 88011-4 Hardback; 978 0521 70598-1 Paperback).
. Commission for Africa (2005). Our Common Interest: Report of the Commission for Africa,
. Deloitte (2017) http:// www.deloitte.com assessed on 23/2/2017.
. Di Norcia, V. 2008. Global warming is man-made: Global points in the international panel on climate change 2007 report. – Ethics in Business. Oxford University Press. University of Sudbury Emeritus.
. Diran M., Luke M., Aggrey A. (2009). Status of Biotechnology in Africa: Challenges and Opportunities. Asian Biotechnology and Development Review, 11 (3):1-10
. Fereja, M.B (2016). Use of Biotechnology in Livestock Production and Productivities; A review, International Journal of Research -Granthaalayah, 4(6):100-109.
. Fuchs, M. (2010). Plant resistance to viruses: Engineered resistance. In Desk Encyclopedia of Plant and Fungal Virology; Mahy, B.W.J., van Regenmortel, M.H.V., Eds.; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherland; pp. 44–52.
. Gillespie, S and Haddad, L. (2001). Attacking the double burden of malnutrition in Asia and Pacific. ADB nutrition and development series No 4, Asia development Bank and international food policy research institute (IFPRI), Manila and Washington.
. Hazell, P. B., Poulton, C., Wiggins, S and Dorward, A. (2008). The future of small farms for poverty reduction and growth (Vol. 42). Intl Food Policy Res Inst.
. Global Panel, (2015). Biofortification: An Agricultural Investment for Nutrition. Policy Brief No. 1. London, UK: Global Panel on Agriculture and Food Systems for Nutrition.
. Hazell, P. B., Poulton, C., Wiggins, S., and Dorward, A. (2007). The future of small farms for poverty reduction and growth (Vol. 42). Intl Food Policy Res Inst.
. http://www.fao.org/gambia/fao-in-gambia/gambia-at-a- glance/on/ 24/5/2016
. Iheanyi O, O., Olalekan, P. O and Oluwafemi, S. O (2006). The role of biotechnology in the socio-economic advancement and national development: An Overview. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 5 (19), pp. 2354-2366.
. Karin E. B., Elisabeth J., Håkan, M and Pernilla T. (2015). The Role of Biotechnology in Sustainable Agriculture: Views and Perceptions among Key Actors in the Swedish Food Supply Chain. Sustainability. doi:10.3390/su7067512
. Karmee, S.K., and Chadha, A., (2005): Preparation of biodiesel from crude oil of Pongamiapinnata.Bioresour Technol., 96: 1425-1429. 10.1016/j.biortech.2004.12.011.
. Koch, M (2004). The case for GMOs in the developing world: how African farmers are benefiting from biotechnology. Available at: « www.cropscience.org.au/icsc2004/pdf/1834_koch.pdf». Accessed Oct. 7, 2017.
. Korenblit, J (2006). Biotechnology Innovations in Developing Nations. BiotechnolHealthc. 3(1): 55–58
. Luque, R and Clark, J. H (2013): Valorisation of food residues: waste to wealth using green chemical technologies. SustainableChem Process, 1:10
. Malanding S. J. (2011). Climate change and development in the Gambia; challenges to ecosystem goods and services
. Mbambo, Z. (2009). Global climate change and the role of agricultural biotechnology
. Moseley, W.G., Carney, J and Becker, J (2009). Neoliberal policy, rural livelihoods, and urban food security in West Africa: A comparative study of The Gambia, Côte d'Ivoire, and Mali.Current Issue : 107 (13)5774–5779, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0905717107.
. Norton, G. W., Mills, B., et al. (1989). Analysis of Agriculture Research Priorities in the Gambia. Banjul, Gambia Agriculture Research and Diversification GARD.
. Olaniyan, S.A., Bakare, A.A and Morenikeji, O.A (2007), GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS IN NIGERIA: A long-lasting solution to hunger, Estud. Biol. 2007 abr/jun; 29(67):191-202.
. Pimentel, D and Patzek T.W., (2005): Ethanol production using corn, switchgrass, and wood;biodiesel production using soybean and sunflower. Nat Resour Res., 14: 65-76. 10.1007/s11053-005-4679-8.
. Qaim, M (2009), The economics of modified genetically modified crops. Annu. Rev. Resour. Econ. 2009, 1, 665–693.
. Saavi (South African AIDS Vaccine Initiative), 2016.Available at: «http://www.saavi.org.za/index.htm». Accessed Oct. 4, 2016.
. Sakiko F, Parr and Amy, O (2012). GM Crops for Food Security in Africa –The Path Not Yet Taken, working paper, United Nation Development Programme,Regional Bureau for Africa.
. The Gambian Agriculture and Natural Resources (ANR) Policy, 2009.
. The point newspaper. Accessed 27/9/17 http://thepoint.gm/africa/gambia/article/bio-fortification- project-officials-meet-farmers
. Thomson, J.A. (2008). The role of biotechnology for agricultural sustainability in Africa. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 363, 905–913 doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2191
. Thomson, J.A., Shepherd, D.N and Mignouna, H.D. (2010). Developments in agricultural biotechnology in Sub-Saharan Africa. AgBioForum. 13, 314–319.
. Thorsteinsdóttir, H., Sáenz T.W and Quach, U. (2004). Cuba – innovation through synergy. Nature Biotechnology. DC19–DC24
. Tietyen J.L., McGough, S and Kurzynske, J.S (2000). Consumer perceptions of food-related health risks. Society for Nutrition Education Annual Meeting, Charleston, S.C. July.
. Troullier P, Olliaro P andTorreele E, (2002). Drug development for neglected diseases: a deficient market and a public health policy failure. Lancet. 2002; 359:2188–2194.
. UNAIDS (Global AIDS update 2016) http://www.unaids.org 20/02/2017.
. UNDP. Human Development Report (2004): Cultural Liberty in Today’s Diverse World.
. US EPA (2011). Agriculture and Food Supply: Climate change, health and environmental effects. April 14, 2011. http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/effects/agriculture.html.
. Wang W., Vinocur B and Altman A (2003), Plant responses to drought, salinity and extreme temperatures: Towards genetic engineering for stress tolerance. Planta 2003, 218,1–14.
. WHO (2016). Biofortification of staple crops. Retrieved January 7, 2017 from http://www.who.int/elena/titles/biofortification/en/
. Yan, S., Chen, X., Wu, J and Wang, P (2013): Pilot scale production of fuel ethanol from concentrated food waste hydrolysates using Saccharomyces cerevisiae H058. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng., 36: 937-946. 10.1007/s00449-012-0827-9.
Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- By submitting the processing fee, it is understood that the author has agreed to our terms and conditions which may change from time to time without any notice.
- It should be clear for authors that the Editor In Chief is responsible for the final decision about the submitted papers; have the right to accept\reject any paper. The Editor In Chief will choose any option from the following to review the submitted papers:A. send the paper to two reviewers, if the results were negative by one reviewer and positive by the other one; then the editor may send the paper for third reviewer or he take immediately the final decision by accepting\rejecting the paper. The Editor In Chief will ask the selected reviewers to present the results within 7 working days, if they were unable to complete the review within the agreed period then the editor have the right to resend the papers for new reviewers using the same procedure. If the Editor In Chief was not able to find suitable reviewers for certain papers then he have the right to accept\reject the paper.B. sends the paper to a selected editorial board member(s). C. the Editor In Chief himself evaluates the paper.
- Author will take the responsibility what so ever if any copyright infringement or any other violation of any law is done by publishing the research work by the author
- Before publishing, author must check whether this journal is accepted by his employer, or any authority he intends to submit his research work. we will not be responsible in this matter.
- If at any time, due to any legal reason, if the journal stops accepting manuscripts or could not publish already accepted manuscripts, we will have the right to cancel all or any one of the manuscripts without any compensation or returning back any kind of processing cost.
- The cost covered in the publication fees is only for online publication of a single manuscript.