Factors that Influence the State Expenditure: Comparison of the Maldivian Communities
AbstractThe literature on public policy is growing as academics and social scientists have studied how public distribution policy or a mixture of policies has been influenced by multi-dimensional factors; that is, how the provision of state expenditures is determined. This article provides a model formation of commonly used multi-dimensional variables by using a structural equation model (SEM) to demonstrate the relationship between policy determinants and major state expenditures for education, health and infrastructure. A sample set of communities from 187 islands in the Maldives that are grouped into three provinces were used in this study. As a beginning argument, the theoretical justification of socio-economics, political factors and social capital factors was determined. Moreover, a model was created and confirmed as fitting into a local context and applicable for estimating the relationship in a clear and valid approach.
R. Klein, "The Politics of Public Expenditure: American Theory and British Practice," British Journal of Political Science, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 401-432, 1976.
M. Mullard, The Politics of Public Expenditure 2ed, Abingdon: Routledge, 1993.
The Royal Economic Society, "The collected writings of John Maynard Keynes—volume VII: the general theory of employment, interest and money," Cambridge University Press, London, 2013.
A. Wagner, "Three Extracts on Public Finance," in Classics in the Theory of Public Finance in 1958, R. A. Musgrave and A. T. Peacock, Eds., UK, Palgrave Macmillan, 1883, pp. 1-15.
R. G. Holcombe, "The Median Voter Model in Public Choice Theory," JSTOR: Springer , vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 115-125, 1989.
J. M. Buchanan and T. Gordon, "The Expanding Public Sector: Wagner Squared," JSTOR: Springer, vol. 31, pp. 147-150, 1977.
S. Welch and J. R. Hibbing, "The Effects of Charges of Corruption on Voting Behavior in Congressional Elections, 1982-1990," The Journal of Politics, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 226-239, 1997.
L. Phillips, "Reviewed Work: Causes of Delinquency by Travis Hirschi," The Journal of Human Resources, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 119-121, 1972.
L. Guiso, P. Sapienza and L. Zingales, "The Role of Social Capital in Financial Development," AMERICAN ECONOMIC REVIEW, vol. 94, no. 3, pp. 526-556, 2004.
National Bureau of Statistics, Ministry of Finance and Treasury, Statistical Yearbook of Maldives, Male': National Bureau of Statistics, Male; Maldives, 2016.
A. T. Peacock and J. Wiseman, The growth of public expenditure in the United Kingdom, London: Princeton University Press, 1961.
J. F. Baca Campodónico, J. R. P. Cassinelli and J. A. Mesones, "The impact of public expenditures in education, health, and infrastructure on economic growth and," Inter-American Development Bank, USA, 2014.
K.-H. Yuan and X. Zhong, "Robustness of fit indices to outliers and leverage observations in structural equation modeling," Psychological Methods, pp. 121-136, 2013.
R. H. Hoyle, Handbook of Structural Equation Modeling, New York: Guilford Press, 2014.
P. Barrett, "Structural equation modelling: Adjudging model fit," Personality and Individual Differences , p. 815–824, 2007.
H. W. Marsh, K.-T. Hau and D. Grayson, Goodness of Fit in Structural Equation Models, vol. Multivariate applications book series. Contemporary psychometrics: A festschrift for Roderick P. McDonald , Maydeu-Olivares and J. McArdle, Eds., New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, 2005, pp. pp. 275-340.
S. Mulaik, L. James, J. Van Alstine, N. Bennet, S. Lind and C. Stilwell, "Evaluation of Goodness-of-Fit Indices for Structural Equation Models," Psychological Bulletin, pp. 45 - 430, 1989.
H. Holmes-Smith, L. Coote and E. Cunningham, Structural equation modeling: from the fundamentals to advanced topics., Melbourne: Melbourne: School Research, Evaluation and Measurement Services. , 2006.
A. Etzioni, "Mixed-Scanning: A "Third" Approach to Decision-Making," JSTOR: Public Administration Review, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 385-392, 1967.
J. S. Coleman, "Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital," The American Journal of Sociology, vol. 94, pp. 95-120, 1988.
R. Musgrave, "The Theory of Public Finance: A Study in Public Economy," JSTOR, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. p. 234-238, january 1960.
R. MacCallum, M. Browne and H. Sugawara, "Power Analysis and Determination of Sample Size for Covariance Structure Modeling," Psychological Methods, pp. 49-130, 2006.
P. Dasgupta and I. Serageldin, Social Capital: A Multifaceted Perspective, Washington, D.C.: World Bank Publications, 2001.
Jolliffe, "Discarding Variables in a Principal Component Analysis. II: Real Data," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series C (Applied Statistics), vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 21-31, 1973.
Ministry of Housing and Infrastructure, Yearly Reort 2016, Male' : Ministry of Housing and Infrastructure, Male' Maldives, 2016.
D. Ricardo, On the Principles of Political Economy, and Taxation, J. Murray, 1817, 1817.
R. Putnam, R. Leonardi and R. Y. Nanetti, Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1993.
S. Beugelsdijk and T. Van Schaik, "Social capital and growth in European regions: an empirical test," European Journal of Political Economy, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 301-324, 2005.
J. Tsai, "Ideal Affect: Cultural Causes and Behavioral Consequences," Sage Journals, 2007.
J. G. Peters and S. Welch, "The Effects of Charges of Corruption on Voting Behavior in Congressional Elections," The American Political Science Review, vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 697-708, 1980.
T. Nannicini, A. Stella, G. Tabellini and U. Troiano, "Social Capital and Political Accountability," American Economic Journal: Economic policy, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 222-250, 2013.
D. C. North, "Institutions," Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 97-112, 1991.
Bourdieu, P., "The forms of capital. In J. Richardson (Ed.) Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education," pp. 241-258, 1986.
T. Hirschi, Causes of Delinquency, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers, 2002.
S. Knack and P. Keefer, "Does Social Capital Have an Economic Payoff? A Cross-Country Investigation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. 112, pp. 1251-1288, 1997.
J. S. Coleman, Foundations of Social Theory, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1994.
E. M. Uslaner, The Moral Foundations of Trust, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
S. Zmerli, "Social Capital and Norms of Citizenship: An Ambiguous Relationship?," Sage Journals, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 657-676, 2010.
Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- By submitting the processing fee, it is understood that the author has agreed to our terms and conditions which may change from time to time without any notice.
- It should be clear for authors that the Editor In Chief is responsible for the final decision about the submitted papers; have the right to accept\reject any paper. The Editor In Chief will choose any option from the following to review the submitted papers:A. send the paper to two reviewers, if the results were negative by one reviewer and positive by the other one; then the editor may send the paper for third reviewer or he take immediately the final decision by accepting\rejecting the paper. The Editor In Chief will ask the selected reviewers to present the results within 7 working days, if they were unable to complete the review within the agreed period then the editor have the right to resend the papers for new reviewers using the same procedure. If the Editor In Chief was not able to find suitable reviewers for certain papers then he have the right to accept\reject the paper.B. sends the paper to a selected editorial board member(s). C. the Editor In Chief himself evaluates the paper.
- Author will take the responsibility what so ever if any copyright infringement or any other violation of any law is done by publishing the research work by the author
- Before publishing, author must check whether this journal is accepted by his employer, or any authority he intends to submit his research work. we will not be responsible in this matter.
- If at any time, due to any legal reason, if the journal stops accepting manuscripts or could not publish already accepted manuscripts, we will have the right to cancel all or any one of the manuscripts without any compensation or returning back any kind of processing cost.
- The cost covered in the publication fees is only for online publication of a single manuscript.