Hope Predicts Happiness with Life, Personal Well-Being, and Resilience Among Selected School-going Filipino Adolescents
AbstractAdolescence is a unique life stage where individuals face challenging and diverse psychosocial issues. It is therefore essential to continuously explore variables through which positive psychological outcomes can be fostered among adolescents. The present study, thus, explored the relationship among desirable psychosocial variables; namely, hope, happiness, personal well-being, and resilience. It aimed to investigate if hope and its components—pathway and agency—predict levels of happiness with life, personal well-being, and resilience in a group of purposively selected school-going Filipino adolescents (n=170), who participated in an adolescent development activity organized in a university in Laguna, Philippines. Upon analysis of data, descriptive statistics showed moderate to high levels of hope, happiness, and overall personal well-being, while low-average level of resilience. Correlation analysis, on the other hand, revealed positive relationships among study variables. Furthermore, regression analysis established that overall hope significantly predicts general happiness, overall personal well-being, and resilience. It also showed that only agency was a significant positive predictor of general happiness and overall personal well-being. Hope and its two components were, on the other hand, all positive predictors of resilience. At the end of this paper, directions for research and interventions to foster hope, well-being, and resilience among the youth are discussed.
United Nations Children’s Fund. The state of the world’s children 2011: Adolescence, an age of opportunity. New York: United Nations. 2011.
M. P. Ferido, N. J. Botor & Dy, M. R. “Risks in adolescence, perceived causes and potential interventions: Interfacing home and school perceptions.” The Journal of Philippine Association for Technology in Home Economics in State Colleges and Universities, Inc. 2015.
M. Willgerodt. 2008. Family and peer influences on adjustment among Chinese, Filipino and White youth. Nursing Research, 57, 6, 395-405.
K. Dodge & N. Gonzales. “Family and peer influences on adolescent behavior and risk-taking.” Paper presented at IOM Committee on the Science of Adolescence Workshop, Washington, DC. 2009.
P. L. Benson & K. Pittman. “Moving the youth development message: Turning a vague idea into a moral imperative.” In P. L. Benson & K. J. Pittman (Eds.), Trends in youth development: Visions, realities, and challenges (pp. vii–xii). Norwell, MA. 2001.
P. L. Benson, P. C. Scales, S. F. Hamilton, A. Sesma Jr. Positive Youth Development: Theory, Research, and Applications. In Handbook of Child Psychology: Theoretical Models of Human Development, 6th ed.; R. M. Lerner, W. Damon, Eds.; John Wiley & Sons Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2006; pp. 894–941. ISBN 0471272884.
R. S. Lazarus. (1999). “Hope: An emotion and a vital coping resource against despair.” Social Research: Hope and Despair, 66(2), pp. 653-678. https://www.jstor.org/stable/40971343.
C. R. Snyder (1995). “Conceptualizing, measuring and nurturing hope.” Journal of Counseling and Development, 73, 3, 355-360. Available: https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1995.tb01764.x. [June 29, 2019]
C. R. Snyder, C. Harris, J. R. Anderson, S. A. Holleran, L. M. Irving, S. T. Sigmon, L. Yoshinobu, J. Gibb, C. Langelle, & P. Harney. “The will and the ways: development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 4, 570-85. 1991.
C. R. Snyder, S. J. Lopez, H. S. Shorey, K. L. Rand, & D. B. Feldman, D. B. “ Hope theory, measurements and applications to school psychology.” School Psychology Quarterly, 18, 2, 122-139. 2003.
A. Bernardo (2010). “Extending hope theory: Internal and external locus of trait hope.” Personality and Individual Differences, 49(8), pp. 994-949. Available: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2010.07.036. [June 28, 2019]
M. F. Valle, E. S. Hubner, & S. M. Suldo. (2006). “An analysis of hope as a psychological strength.” Journal of School Psychology, 44, 393-406.
N. S. M. Kintanar & A. B. I. Bernardo (2013). “Hope and internal working models of the Self and Others: A correlational study on Filipino adolescents.” Psychological Studies, 58(1). Available: doi: 10.1007/s12646-012-0174-6 [June 29, 2019].
N. J. B. Botor. “Hope and meaning in life as predictors of depression in a group of selected Filipino adolescents.” The Journal of Philippine Association for Technology in Home Economics in State Colleges and Universities, Inc. pp. _____. 2015.
N. J. B. Botor. “Self-esteem and perceived social support as correlates of hope among selected undergraduate adolescents.” The Journal of Philippine Association for Technology in Home Economics in State Colleges and Universities, Inc. pp. 90-100. 2016.
O. N. Medvedev & C. E. Landhuis (2018). “Exploring constructs of well-being, happiness and quality of life.” PeerJ. DOI 10.7717/peerj.4903.
E. Diener. 2006. “Guidelines for national indicators of subjective well-being and ill-being.” Journal of Happiness Studies 7(4):397–404 DOI 10.1007/s10902-006-9000-y.
World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) Group. 1995. “The World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment (WHOQOL): position paper from the World Health Organization.” Social Science and Medicine 41(10):1403–1409.
T. B. Kashdan, R. Biswas-Diener, & L. A. King. 2008. “Reconsidering happiness: the costs of distinguishing between hedonics and eudaimonia.” Journal of Positive Psychology 3(4):219–233 DOI 10.1080/17439760802303044.
P. Hills, & M. Argyle. 2002. “The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire: a compact scale for the measurement of psychological well-being.” Personality and Individual Differences 33(7):1073–1082 DOI 10.1016/s0191-8869(01)00213-6.
R. A. Cummins. “The domains of life satisfaction: An attempt to order chaos.” Social Indicators Research, 38, 303-332. 1996
R. A., Cummins, R. Eckersley, J. Pallant, J. Van Vugt & R. Misajon. “Developing a national index of subjective wellbeing: The Australian Unity Wellbeing Index.” Social Indicators Research, 64, 159-190. 2002.
A. L. D. Lau, R. A. Cummins, & W. McPherson. “An investigation into the cross-cultural equivalence of the Personal Wellbeing Index.” Social Indicators Research, 72, 403-432. 2005
J. A. D. Alfonso & J. P. M Valdez (2012). “Exploring Filipino adolescents’ conception of happiness.” International Journal of Research Studies in Psychology: Special Issue on Positive Psychology, 1 (3), 21-29. Available: http://consortiacademia.org/wp-content/uploads/IJRSP/IJRSP_v1i3/251-1009-1-PB.pdf. [June 30, 2019].
J. C. Navarez. “Presence of meaning, search for meaning, and happiness among Filipino college students,” presented at the DLSU Research Congress 2017, De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines, 2017. Available: De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines June 20 to 22, 2017 [June 30, 2019]
J. A. D. Datu & G. S. N. Lizada. “Interdependent happiness is associated with higher levels of behavioral and emotional engagement among Filipino university students.” Philippine Journal of Psychology, 51(1), 63-80. 2018.
J. A. Perez (2012). “Gender difference in psychological well-being among Filipino college student samples.” International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2(13), 84-93. Available: http://www.ijhssnet.com/journals/Vol_2_No_13_July_2012/8.pdf. [June 30, 2019].
American Psychological Association (2017). The Road to Resilience. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/road-resilience.aspx.
Hu, T., Zhang, D., & Wang, J. (2015). A meta-analysis of the trait resilience and mental health. Personality and Individual Differences, 76, 18-27.
Connor, K. M., & Davidson, J. R. T. (2003). Development of a new resilience scale: the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Depression and Anxiety, 18: 76-82.
Smith, B. W., Dalen, J., Wiggins, K., Tooley, E., Christopher, P., & Bernard, J. (2008). The brief resilience scale: assessing the ability to bounce back. International journal of behavioral medicine, 15(3), 194-200.
P. S. Docena (2015). “Adaptive coping, resilience, and absence of anxiety among displaced disaster survivors.” Philippine Journal of Psychology, 48(2), 27-49. Available: https://www.pap.org.ph/sites/default/files/pdf/PJP1502_Final_2Docena.pdf. [July 2, 2019]
M. L. G. Adviento, & J. M. D. de Guzman (2010). “Community resilience during typhoon Ondoy: The case of Ateneoville.” Philippine Journal of Psychology, 43(1), 101-113. Available: http://lynchlibrary.pssc.org.ph:8081/bitstream/handle/0/1538/08_Community%20Resilience%20During%20Typhoon%20Ondoy_%20The%20Case%20of%20Ateneoville.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y. [July 1, 2019].
D. Wartenweiler (2017). “Negotiating the streets: Hidden resilience among grown-up street children in Manila.” Philippine Journal of Psychology, 50(1), 47-75. Available: https://www.pap.org.ph/sites/default/files/upload/pjp2017-50-1-pp47-75-wartenweiler-negotiating_the_streeets._hidden_resilience_among_grown-up_street_children_in_manila.pdf. [July 1, 2019].
M. R. M. Hechanova, L. C. Waelde, P. S. Docena, L. P. Alampay, A. S. Alianan, M. J. B. Flores, P. A. P. Ramos, & M. I. E. Melgar (2015). “The development and initial evaluation of Katatagan: A resilience intervention for Filipino disaster.” Philippine Journal of Psychology, 48 (2), 105-132. Available: https://www.pap.org.ph/sites/default/files/pdf/PJP1502_Final_5Hechanova_et_al.pdf [June 30, 2019].
J. Flores, I. Melgar, R. Guiang, Q. Jopson, P. Docena, J. Fornillos, & M. Pan. “ Katatagan: Developing Resilience among college students in Tacloban.” Paper presented in the 51st Annual Convention of the Psychological Association of the Philippines, Cagayan de Oro, Philippines. 2014.
H. Saricam (2015). “Subjective happiness and hope.” Universitas Psychologica, 14(2), 685-694. http://dx.doi.org.10.1H44/Javeri-ana.upsy14-1.shah. Available: http://www.scielo.org.co/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1657-92672015000200023. [June 29, 2019].
R. Rymbai, & S. M. Sungoh (2016). “Hope and happiness of female post graduate students.” International Education and Research Journal, 2(1). Available: http://ierj.in/journal/index.php/ierj/article/view/493/465>. [July 1, 2019].
N. Hasnain, S. W. Wazid, & Z. Hasan (2014). “Optimism, hope, and happiness as correlates of psychological well-being among young adult Assamese males and females.” IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 19(2), 44-51. Available: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/b433/cdc85e06636aac653bb066db97bf32107846.pdf. [June 29, 2019]
M. N. Kirmani, P. Sharma, M. Anas, & R. Sanam. (2015). “Hope, resilience and subjective well-being among college-going adolescent girls.” International Journal of Humanities & Social Science Studies (IJHSSS), 2(1), 262-270. Available: http://oaji.net/articles/2015/1115-1438581068.pdf [June 30, 2019].
J. Vartak. (2015). “The role of hope and social support on resilience in cancer patients.” Indian Journal of Mental Health, 2(1), 35-42. Available: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/b103/297b9ca81bac431a5d90074c61751ad8f479.pdf [June 30, 2019].
Philippine Senate. 2017. “Republic Act No. 11036: Mental Health Act” Available: http://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/downloads/2018/06jun/20180620-RA-11036-RRD.pdf. [June 29, 2019].
JASP Team (2018). JASP (Version 0.10.0) [Computer software].
W. Meeus, R. van de Schoot, L. Keijser, & S. Branje (2012). “Identity statuses as developmental trajectories: A five-wave longitudinal study in early-to-middle and middle-to-late adolescents.” Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41, 1008-1021. Available: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3394234/pdf/10964_2011_Article_9730.pdf [June 30, 2019]
M. Verschueren, J. Rassart, L. Claes, P. Moons, & K. Luyckx. (2017). “Identity statuses throughout adolescence and emerging adulthood: A large-scale study into gender, age, and contextual differences.” Psychologica Belgica, 57(1), pp. 32–42, Available: https://doi.org/10.5334/pb.348. [July 2, 2019].
S. Madan & K. I. Pakenham. (2014) “The stress-buffering effects of hope on adjustment to multiple sclerosis.” International Journal of Behavioral Medicine. Available: DOI 10.1007/s12529-013-9384-0. [June 30, 2019]
L. J. Long & M. W. Gallagher. (2017). “Hope and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder” Oxford Handbooks Online. DOI: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199399314.013.24. [June 30, 2019].
J. Ciarrochi, P. Parker, T. B. Kashdan, P. C.L. Heaven & E. Barkus (2015). “Hope and emotional well-being: A six-year study to distinguish antecedents, correlates, and consequences.” The Journal of Positive Psychology: Dedicated to furthering research and promoting good practice. DOI: 10.1080/17439760.2015.1015154 [July 2, 2019].
Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- By submitting the processing fee, it is understood that the author has agreed to our terms and conditions which may change from time to time without any notice.
- It should be clear for authors that the Editor In Chief is responsible for the final decision about the submitted papers; have the right to accept\reject any paper. The Editor In Chief will choose any option from the following to review the submitted papers:A. send the paper to two reviewers, if the results were negative by one reviewer and positive by the other one; then the editor may send the paper for third reviewer or he take immediately the final decision by accepting\rejecting the paper. The Editor In Chief will ask the selected reviewers to present the results within 7 working days, if they were unable to complete the review within the agreed period then the editor have the right to resend the papers for new reviewers using the same procedure. If the Editor In Chief was not able to find suitable reviewers for certain papers then he have the right to accept\reject the paper.B. sends the paper to a selected editorial board member(s). C. the Editor In Chief himself evaluates the paper.
- Author will take the responsibility what so ever if any copyright infringement or any other violation of any law is done by publishing the research work by the author
- Before publishing, author must check whether this journal is accepted by his employer, or any authority he intends to submit his research work. we will not be responsible in this matter.
- If at any time, due to any legal reason, if the journal stops accepting manuscripts or could not publish already accepted manuscripts, we will have the right to cancel all or any one of the manuscripts without any compensation or returning back any kind of processing cost.
- The cost covered in the publication fees is only for online publication of a single manuscript.