|MOHD HAIRUL MOHD SALLEH (email@example.com)|
|FACULTY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, UNIVERSITI KEBANGSAAN MALAYSIA|
|School of Biology
Department of Wildlife and National Parks, Malaysia.
|An assessment of reproductive performance and captive management of penguins kept at the Underwater World Langkawi (UWL), Langkawi Island, Kedah is important to keep these animals welfare. The management programme includes specific facilities, diet, vitamins and medication supply to ensure the species can continue to life and reproduce successfully. Therefore, the main goals of this study were to assess the reproductive performance of African Penguins and to evaluate the captive penguin management at the Uunderwater World Langkawi (UWL). A total of 40 African Penguins (Spheniscus demersus) housed in enclosure 13 was studied. The data was collected in two ways; observation and secondary data. The evaluation focused on assessment in detail of captive environment management, which includes enclosure size, temperature, lighting, and pool water quality in the enclosure. Then, husbandry part, which includes feeding, routing health and sanitation management programme. After that, reproductive performance, which includes all reproductive stages, such as pairing, nesting, lay eggs, brooding and hatching. Showcase space and environment of the enclosure were considered ample and suitable for daily routine activities of the penguin. Reproductive performances were also considered good, however, it can be improved on providing enough nests and nesting materials. There was, however, an indication of inbreeding occurring within the population where by the exchange of penguins with other aquariums may be needed. Although the breeding program is good, overpopulation would be a big problem for the UWL in the future. In order to increase the livelihoods of penguins similar as wild, UWL is suggested to offering more food varieties and feeding the penguins with life fish. Detailed assessments and more recommendations are presents in the dissertation.|