Investigating the Relationship between Responsive Environment and Appearance of Public Art Case Study: The St. Petersburg Palace Square and Moscow Red Square

Shiva Ebrahimi Fakhar, Parnia Shahab


Public art is a connection between the city and human, and it needs an audience and context for Appearance. If the relationship between citizens and public art become strong, their perception of the city and the sense of belonging to the urban environment will increase. The components of responsive urban spaces bring about appearance of perceptual quality and satisfy citizens, in other words, strengthen the relationship between the city and the citizens. This bilateral relationship is the main point of this article that has been investigated. Through two case studies in Russia, with the method of field studies and qualitative research. In this paper, after perusing the characteristics of urban space in the two square of St. Petersburg and Moscow which is causing the appearance of Public art, in the analytical tables, relative comparisons of Public art in these two sites were discussed.  The criteria for creating a high environmental quality lead to the creation of spaces that are shaped in accordance with the needs and requirements of the human being and are responsive to human behavior. Also, the emergence of public art will satisfy human needs in the Russian Palace and Red Square. However, the two domains have conceptually different perceptions. The House of Lords in St. Petersburg, is in contrast to the Moscow Red Square in meaning. This difference in the meaning of these two squares is both physically and functionally and also related to their different historical backgrounds.


Public art; responsive environment; human behaviors; Russia; urban square.

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