What is known about Ventricular Septal Defect in University Female Students of Saudi Arabia?

Raja El hasnaoui-Saadani, Rawabi Alqurashi, Nuha Ramadan, Ruba Alzuhairi, Hanan Khalid, Khuld Abdullah, Nahla Mohamed


This study was performed to estimate the knowledge and awareness of the university students about the presence of ventricular septal defects (VSDs) in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was performed in Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University (PNU) campus where a total of 350 female students in the age group of 17-25 years were surveyed using a clinically appropriate structurally designed questionnaire. Only a third of the population were familiar with the definition and anatomical location of VSDs. Although, majority of the population believed that VSDs are subject to cure, a negligible population of the students were aware that VSDs are associated with pulmonary hypertension in adults, although, about half of the population were associated with people who were suffering from VSDs. Even though promising, only half of the population were aware of rapid breathing in infants and association of endocarditis with VSDs. Regarding life-style factors, only 18% of the population knew that VSD patients are restrained from different physical activities. This population study is the first of its kind to determine the knowledge of the university students regarding the characteristics, symptoms, risk-factors, management and life-style factors associated with VSD. It identified the imperative need to organize campaigns to raise awareness about the disease process and management among female population who will be future mothers since Awareness about VSDs can help manage the physical, social, cognitive and emotional well-being of the patients with better outcomes to reduce the mortality rate.  


ventricular septal defects; Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University (PNU) ; Population based educational campaigns to raise awareness; Restricted life-style factors, Awareness.

Full Text:



. Fyler DC. Ventricular septal defect. In: Fyler DC, ed. Nadas’ Pediatric Cardiology. Philadelphia, Pa: Hanley & Delfus, Inc; 1992:435–457.

. Clark EB. Etiology of congenital cardiovascular malformations. In: Allen HD, Gutgesell HP, Clark EB, Driscoll DJ, ed. Moss and Adams’ Heart Disease in Infants, Children, and Adolescents Including the Fetus and Young Adult. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2001;1: 64–79.

. Mary S. Minette, and David J. Sahn. Congenital Heart Disease for the Adult Cardiologist. Ventricular Septal Defects. Circulation. 2006; 114:2190-2197.

. Beat Friedli, B.S. Langford Kidd, William T. Mustard, and John D. Keith. Ventricular septal defect with increased pulmonary vascular resistance. The American Journal of cardiology. 1974; 33(3):403-409.

. Jun Zhang, Jong Mi Ko, Joseph M. Guileyardo and William C. Roberts. A review of spontaneous closure of ventricular septal defect. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2015 Oct; 28(4): 516–520.

. Hagler DJ, Edwards WD, Seward JB, Tajik AJ. Standardized nomenclature of the ventricular septum and ventricular septal defects, with applications for two-dimensional echocardiography. Mayo Clin Proc. 1985; 60:741–752.

. Kirklin JK, Castaneda AR, Keane JF, Fellows KE, Norwood WI. Surgical management of multiple ventricular septal defects. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1980; 80:485–493.

. Dennis J. Vince and John D. Keith. The Electrocardiogram in Ventricular Septal Defect. Circulation. 1961; Volume XXIII.

. Kardon RE, Cao QL, Masani N, Sugeng L, Supran S, Warner KG, Pandian NG, Marx GR. New insights and observations in three-dimensional echocardiographic visualization of ventricular septal defects. Circulation. 1998; 98:1307–1314.

. Meenakshi Maitra, Marie K. Schluterman, Haley A. Nichols, James A. Richardson, Cecilia W. Lo, Deepak Srivastava, and Vidu Garg. Interaction of Gata4 and Gata6 with Tbx5 is critical for normal cardiac development. Dev Biol. 2009; 326(2):368–377.

. Montigny M, Davignon A, Fouron JC, Biron P, Fournier A, Elie R. Captopril in infants for congestive heart failure secondary to a large ventricular left-to-right shunt. Am J Cardiol. 1989; 63:631–633.

. Su-chiung Chen. Recent advances in the treatment of congestive heart failure. The Indian Journal of Paediatrics. 1998; 65(1): 13-20.

. Syed T. Hussain, James Witten, Nabin K. Shrestha, Eugene H. Blackstone, and Gösta B. Pettersson. Tricuspid valve endocarditis. Ann Cardiothorac Surg. 2017 May; 6(3): 255–261.

. Yang HL, Chen YC, Wang JK, Gau BS, Chen CW, Moons P. Measuring knowledge of patients with congenital heart disease and their parents: validity of the 'Leuven Knowledge Questionnaire for Congenital Heart Disease'. Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2012 Mar;11(1):77-84.

. Abdulmajid M. Almawazini, Ali S. Al Ghamdi, Facharzt, Ahmed H. Ghamdi, CABP, Jameel M. Ghamdi. Review of ventricular septal defect in South Western Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J 2012; 33(8):910-11.

. O’Laughlin MP. Congestive heart failure in children. Pediatr Clin North Am 1999; 46:263–73.


  • There are currently no refbacks.





About IJSBAR | Privacy PolicyTerms & Conditions | Contact Us | DisclaimerFAQs 

IJSBAR is published by (GSSRR).