Determinants of Neonatal Mortality in Referral Facilities of the Health Districts in North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo

Mitangala Ndeba Prudence, Dr. Kahindo Mbeva Jean Bosco, Dr. Ngaima Kila Serge, Katembo Kalemo Oscar, Kyembwa Kasambula Polycarpe, Dr. Mundama Witende Jean Paul


Over the last two decades, several countries that implemented strategies for reaching the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), have reduced their infant mortality by more than half.  In spite of global decrease in infant mortality, in 2015, on the point of completion of the MDGs, Sub-Saharan Africa countries among them Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), remained with highest infant mortality rate. Although making progress, neonatal mortality rate is declining less rapidly than the under-five mortality rate.In order to accelerate reaching infant mortality rate target, several countries among them DRC, have implemented strategies to substantially reduce neonatal mortality.

In order to target actions, a descriptive cross-sectional study of neonatal deaths occurred between January 1st, 2009 and June 30th, 2014 was performed in referral health facilities of 6 North Kivu province health zones in DRC. Acute fetal distress, premature birth and infection were found to be the causes of 83.4% (n = 235) of newborn deaths. Inadequate staff capacities and / or poor management were implicated in the occurrence of 52.9% (n = 225) deaths, linked to a set made of acute fetal distress, premature birth and infection including sepsis and pneumonia.   Results show that implementation of sophisticated structures such as neonatal intensive care units are not necessary to reduce neonatal mortality in the context of health facilities in DRC. A rational organization of care management including staff training, application of effective interventions and targeted low cost strategies to fight effectively against neonatal mortality would contribute significantly to reduce infant mortality.


Neonatal; Rwenzori; ULB-coopération; infant mortality; DRC; North Kivu.

Full Text:



. WHO, “World health statistics 2015”. Geneva: World Health Organization 2015: 15-17.

. WHO, “World Health statistics 2014”. Geneva: World Health Organization 2014: 1-12.

. Nations Unies, “Objectifs du Millénaire pour le développement”. Rapport 2015. Nations unies. New York, 2015.

. United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), “The State of the World's Children 2016: A fair chance for every child”. United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) June 2016

. Oestergaard MZ1, Inoue M, Yoshida S, Mahanani WR, Gore FM, Cousens S & Al, “Neonatal mortality levels for 193 countries in 2009 with trends since 1990: a systematic analysis of progress, projections, and priorities”. PLoS Med. 2011 Aug;8(8):e1001080

. Lawn JE, Cousens S, “4 million neonatal deaths: When? Where? Why?” Lancet. 2005; 365: 891–900.

. Lawn JE, Wilczynska-Ketende K, “Estimating the causes of 4 million neonatal deaths in the year 2000”. International Journal of Epidemiology 2006; 35:706–718.

. Zaidi A, Huskins W, “ Hospital-acquired neonatal infections in developing Countries”. Lancet 2005; 365: 1175–88.

. Robert E Black, Simon Cousens, Hope L Johnson et al, “Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality in 2008: a systematic analysis”. Lancet 2010; 375: 1969–87

. African Union Organization, “Maternal, neonatal and infant situation annual report in Africa 2013”.

. Minister of Plan, Minister of Health of DRC, MEASURE DHS, ICF International, “ Second Edition of Demographic and Health Survey. (DHS-DRC II 2013-2014)”. September 2014 : 114 – 121.

. Wardlaw T, You D, Hug L, Amouzou A, Newby H, “UNICEF Report: enormous progress in child survival but greater focus on newborns urgently needed”. Reprod Health. 2014 Dec 6;11(1):82.

. Oza S, Cousens SN, Lawn JE, “Estimation of daily risk of neonatal death, including the day of birth, in 186 countries in 2013: a vital-registration and modelling-based study”. Lancet Glob Health. 2014 Nov;2(11):e635-44,

. Martines J, Vinod K, “Neonatal survival: a call for action”. Lancet. 2005; 365: 1189 – 97.

. Darmstadt G, Bhutta Z, Cousens S, “Evidence-based, cost-effective interventions: how many newborn babies can we save?” Lancet. 2005; 365: 977–88.


  • There are currently no refbacks.





About IJSBAR | Privacy PolicyTerms & Conditions | Contact Us | DisclaimerFAQs 

IJSBAR is published by (GSSRR).