The Study of Trigona spp Propolis Against Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Production in Spraque Dawley Rats Macrophages Infected with Staphylococcus aureus

Nurbani Kalsum, Ahmad Sulaeman, Budi Setiawan, I Wayan Teguh Wibawan

Abstract


Propolis helps boost the immune system naturally because propolis is rich in bioactive compounds and can help increase the production and activity of immune cells. This product has attracted the interest of researchers in recent decades because of the properties of biological and pharmacological, among others such as antimicrobial, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory. One of  bee species that potentially produce propolis in Indonesia is a local bee species Trigona spp.  This study aimed to to determine the immunomodulatory effects of ethanol extract of propolis on the Sprague Dawley rats were infected by Staphylococcus aureus.contained in propolis liquid. The effects of propolis were analyzed using the macrophage activity as determined by the phagocytic activity and by the production of nitric oxide (NO) in Sprague Dawley rat peritoneal macrophages and the production of antibodies.

Identification of the phytochemical compounds was undertaken to determine the bioactive compounds contained in propolis liquid. The effects of propolis were analyzed using the macrophage activity as determined by the phagocytic activity and by the production of nitric oxide (NO) in Sprague Dawley rat peritoneal macrophages and the production of antibodies. The results showed that the liquid propolis produces (a) an increase in the phagocytic index, (b) a significant increase in NO production, and (c) an increase over the production of IgG antibodies. This study indicates that the ethanolic extract of propolis of Trigona spp. is able to activate macrophages and promote the production of antibodies.  The combination of these results suggests that this extract has an immunomodulatory effect and can boost the immune response.


Keywords


propolis Trigona spp; pro-inflammatory cytokine; macrophages.

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