Growth and Feed Efficiency of Gourami Fish Reared in Biofloc Media with Different C/N Ratios

Rosmawati Rosmawati, Muarif Muarif


The study was conducted to determine C/N ratio which gave the best growth, feed conversion ratio, feed efficiency, survivability, mortality rate, bacteria abundance and reduced nitrogen content in the production media of gourami fish.  Treatments consisted of different C/N ratios including control, CN ratio 12,  CN ratio 16, and CN ratio 20 in the production media.  The trial was conducted in 45 days.  Daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, feed efficiency, survivability, mortality rate, abundance and types of bacteria, total ammonia-N (TAN), total nitrite, and total nitrate contents were evaluated.  Results showed that different C/N ratios gave significant effects on feed conversion ratio, feed efficiency, survivability, and mortality rate, but not on daily weight gain.  The best feed conversion ratio and feed efficiency was found in C/N ratio 12 while the best survivability and mortality rate were found in CN ratio 20.  The bacteria spreading over the treatment groups were found to reduce from 11 types in the beginning of the trial period to only 8 types in the end of the trial period.  In all treatment groups Micrococcus sp. was found in the beginning of the trial period while Bacillus sp. was found in the end of the trial period.  Based on TAN, nitrate, and nitrite measurements, in production media with high C/N ratios, N content was found to be reduced and in the amount ranges that were good for fish growth even though no water changes were done.  


gourami fish; growth; feed efficiency; biofloc; mortality; bacterial abundance; C/N ratio.

Full Text:



Y. Avnimelech and G. Ritvo, “Shrimp and fish pond soils: processes and management,” Aquaculture, vol. 220, pp. 549 – 567, 2003.

D. E. Brune, G. Schwartz, A. G. Eversole, J. A. Collier, and T. E. Schwedler, “Intensification of pond aquaculture and high rate photosynthetic systems,” Aquac. Eng., pp. 65–86, 2003.

C. E. Boyd, Water quality management for pond fish culture. Amsterdam.: Elsevier Scientific Publ. Co., 1982.

M. P. Masser, R. James, and M. L. Thomas, “Recirculating aquaculture tank production systems, management of recirculating systems. southern regional aquaculture center,” South. Reg. Aquac. Cent., vol. 452, no. 452, p. 1999, 1999.

A. Midlen and T. A. Redding, Environmental management for aquaculture. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000.

R. Montoya and M. Velasco, “Role of bacteria on nutritional and management strategies in aquaculture systems,” Glob. Aquac. Advocate, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 35–36, 2000.

Y. Avnimelech, “Carbon/nitrogen ratio as a control element in aquaculture systems,” Aquaculture, vol. 176, pp. 227–238, 1999.

R. P. McIntosh, “Changing paradigms in shrimp farming : V. establishment of heterotrophic bacterial communities. Global Aquaculture Alliance,” The Advocate, pp. 52–54, 2000.

G. Chamberlain, Y. Avnimelech, R. McIntosh, and M. Velasco, “Adventages of aerated microbial reuse systems with balanced C:N,” Glob. Aquac. Advocate, pp. 53–56, 2001.

R. P. McIntosh, “Changing paradigms in shrimp farming : Establishment of heterotrophic bacterial communities,” Glob. Aquac. Alliance, 2001.

D. C. Burford, M.A., Thompson, P.J., McIntosh, R.P., Bauman, R.H., and Pearson, “Nutrient and microbial dynamics in high-intensity, zero-exchange shrimp ponds in Belize,” Aquaculture, vol. 219, pp. 393 – 411, 2003.

Y. Avnimelech, “Bio-filters: The need for an new comprehensive approach,” Aquac. Eng., vol. 34, pp. 172–178, 2006.

Y. Avnimelech, “Feeding with microbial flocs by tilapia in minimal discharge bio-flocs technology ponds,” Aquaculture, vol. 264, pp. 140 – 147, 2007.

R. Crab, B. Chielens, M. Wille, P. Bossier, and W. Verstraete, “The effect of different carbon sources on the nutritional value of bioflocs, a feed for Macrobrachium rosembergii postlarvae,” Aquac. Res., vol. 41, pp. 559–567, 2009.

B. Hari, B. M. Kurup, J. T. Varghese, J. W. Schrama, and M. C. Verdegem, “Effects of carbohydrate addition on production in extensive shrimp culture systems,” Aquaculture, vol. 241, pp. 179 – 194, 2004.

APHA, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 20th editi. American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation, 1999.

Muarif; and Rosmawati, “Kelangsungan hidup dan pertumbuhan benih ikan Lele Dumbo (Clarias sp) pada sistem resirkulasi dengan kepadatan berbeda,” J. Pertan., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 36–47, 2011.

Muarif, “Karakteristik suhu perairan di kolam budidaya perikanan (Characteristics of water temperature in aquaculture pond),” J. Mina Sains, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 96–101, 2016.

J. Ekasari, “Teknologi bioflok: teori dan aplikasi dalam perikanan budidaya system intensif,” Akuakultur Indones., pp. 117–126, 2009.

J. A. Hargreaves, “Photosynthetic suspended-growth systems in aquaculture,” Aquac. Eng., vol. 34, pp. 344 – 363, 2006.

G. Wang et al., “Effect of C/N ratio on water quality in zero-water exchange tanks and the biofloc supplementation in feed on the growth performance of crucian carp, Carassius auratus,” Aquaculture, vol. 443, pp. 98–104, 2015.

Widanarni, D. Yuniasari, Sukenda, and J. Ekasari, “Nursery culture performance of Litopenaeus vannamei with probiotics addition and different C/N ratio under laboratory condition,” HAYATI J. Biosci., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 115–119, 2010.

P. Zhao, J. Huang, X. H. Wang, X. L. Song, and C. H. Yang, “The application of bioflocs technology in high-intensive, zero exchange farming systems of Marsupenaeus japonicus,” Aquaculture, vol. 354–355, pp. 97–106, 2012.

W. J. Xu and L. Q. Pan, “Effects of bioflocs on growth performance, digestive enzyme activity and body composition of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei in zero-water exchange culture tanks manipulating C/N ratio in feed,” Aquaculture, vol. 356–357, pp. 147–152, 2012.

N. Husain, B. Putri, and Supono, “Perbandingan karbon dan nitrogen pada sistem bioflok terhadap pertumbuhan nila merah ( Oreochromis niloticus ),” J. Rekayasa dan Teknol. Budid. Perair., vol. 3, no. 2, 2014.

M. Faizullah, C. B. T. Rajagopalsamy, B. Ahilan, and T. Francis, “Impact of biofloc technology on the growth of goldfish young ones,” Indian J. Sci. Technol., vol. 8, no. 13, 2015.

A. J. Ray, K. S. Dilon, and J. M. Lotz, “Water quality dynamics and shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei ) production in intensive, mesohaline culture systems with two levels of biofloc management,” Aquac. Eng., vol. 45, pp. 127–136, 2011.

R. Schveitzer, R. Arantes, M. F. Baloi, and P. F. S. Costodio, “Use of artificial substrates in the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei (biofloc system) at different stocking densities: effects on microbial activity, water quality and production rates,” Aquac. Eng., p. 2013, 2013.

M. Emerenciano, E. I. C. Ballester, R. O. Cavalli, and W. Wasielesky, “Biofloc technology application as a food source in a limited water exchange nursery system for pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis (Latreille, 1817),” Aquac. Res., vol. 43, pp. 447–457, 2012.

D. M. De Souza, S. M. Suita, L. A. Romano, W. J. Wasielesky, and E. L. C. Ballester, “Use molasses as a carbon source during the nursery rearing of Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis (Latreille, 1817) in a biofloc technology system,” Aquac. Res., pp. 1–8, 2012.

J A Perez-Fuentes, C. J. Perez-Rostro, C. I. Perez-Rostro, and M. P. Hernandez-Vergara, “Pond- reared Malaysian prawn Macrobranchium rosenbergil with the biofloc system,” Aquaculture, 2013.

M. E. Azim, D. C. Little, and I. E. Bron, “Microbial protein production in activated suspension tanks manipulating C/N ratio in feed and implications for fish culture,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 99, pp. 3590–3599, 2007.

P. De Schryver and W. Verstraete, “Nitrogen removal from aquaculture pond water by heterotrophic nitrogen assimilation in lab-scale sequencing batch reactors,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 100, pp. 1162 – 1167, 2009.

J. Ekasari, “Bio-flocs technology: the effect of different carbon source, salinity and the addition of probiotics on the primary nutritional value of the bio-flocs,” Ghent University, 2008.

D. Kuhn, G. D. Boardman, A L Lawrence, L. Marsh, and J. G. J. Flick, “Microbial floc meal as a replacement ingredient for fish meal and soybean protein in shrimp feed,” Aquaculture, vol. 296, pp. 51–57, 2009.

R. Crab, Y. Avnimelech, T. Defoirdt, P. Bossier, and W. Verstraete, “Nitrogen removal techniques in aquaculture for a sustainable production,” Aquaculture, vol. 270, pp. 1–14, 2007.

T. Defoirdt et al., “The bacterial storage compound of poly- β-hydrobutyrate protects Artemia fransiseana from pathogenic Vibrio campbellii,” Environ. Microbiol., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 445–452, 2007.

L. Michaud, J. Blancheton, V. Bruni, and R. Piedrahita, “Effect of particulate organic carbon on heterotrophic bacterial populations and nitrification efficiency in biological filter,” Aquac. Eng., vol. 34, pp. 224–233, 2006.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Comments on this article

View all comments





About IJSBAR | Privacy PolicyTerms & Conditions | Contact Us | DisclaimerFAQs 

IJSBAR is published by (GSSRR).