An Analytical Study on the Impact of Visual Merchandising on Impulsive Buying Behaviour in Shopper Stop

Sathyanarayana S, Harshini C. S, Sudhindra Gargesa


Impulse buying is a sudden buying decision with no pre-shopping intentions [8], [15].  This behaviour is influenced by internal factors such as emotional [102], personality [99] and external factors such as visual merchandising, demographic [48] and socio economic background of the buyers [25]. The review of literature confirms that visual merchandising has a significant impact on the impulsive buying behaviour.  Therefore, the current paper tried to investigate the major determinants of visual merchandising on the impulse buying behaviour.  In order to realise the stated objectives the researchers have identified five major determinants of visual merchandising. They are Attractive product display, Ambiance inside the store, new product arrival in the store, Offers for the day and Floor merchandising.  The data has been collected from a structured questionnaire from 260 respondents.  The validity of the questionnaire was adjudged, using Cronbach's coefficient (α) was calculated to test the reliability and internal consistency of the responses.  We found a significant relationship of Age, Gender, Marital status, Occupation, Family Size and Monthly Household income with impulsive buying behaviour of the respondents.  Regression results show that the major determinant’s that influence the respondents were Attractive product display, Ambiance inside the store, new product arrival in the store and Offers for the day.  


Visual Merchandising; Impulsive Buying Behaviour; Signage; Window Display; Cronbach's coefficient (α).

Full Text:



Abnett, R. and Goody, S.D., (1990). “Unplanned buying and in-store stimuli in supermarkets”. Managerial and Decision Economics, 11(2), pp.111-121.

Abratt, R. & Goodey, D. S. 1990. „Unplanned Buying and In-Store Stimuli in Supermarkets‟, Managerial and Decision Economics, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 111-121.

Amandeep Kaur. (2013). “Effect of Visual Merchandising on Buying behavior of Customers in Chandigarh”. International Journal of Emerging Science and Innovative Technology, Volume 2, Issue 3, May, pp. 247-251.

Bagozzi, R.P., Gopinath, M., & Nyer, P. U. (1999). “The Role of Emotions in Marketing”. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 184-206.

Bakarne, S. (2008), “Visual Merchandising Concept.”, Date of retrieval on 17.06.2017.

Bashar, A., Ahmed, I. (2012). “Visual merchandising and consumer impulse buying behavior: An Empirical study of Delhi & NCR”. International Journal of Retail Management & Research, Vol.2, pp. 31-41.

Bayley, G., & Nancarrow, C. (1998). “Impulse Purchasing: A Qualitative Exploration of the Phenomenon”. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 1(2), pp. 99-114.

Beatty, S. E., & Ferrell, M. E. (1998). “Impulse Buying: Modelling Its Precursors”. Journal of Retailing, 74(2), pp. 169-191.

Bell, J. and Ternus, K. (2002). “Silent Selling: Best Practice and Effective Strategies in Visual Merchandising”, Fairchild Publications, New York, NY.

Bellenger, D.N., Dan, H.R., and Elizabeth, C.H., (1978). “Impulse buying varies by product”. Journal of Advertising Research, 18(6), pp.15-18.

Bellizi J.A. and Hite R.E (1992). “Environmental color consumer feelings and purchase likelihood”, Psychology & Marketing, Vol. 9, pp. 347–363.

Bellizzi, J. A., Crowley, A. E., & Hasty, R. W. (1983). “The effects of color in store design”. Journal of Retailing, 59, pp. 21-45.

Berman, B. and Evans, J.R. (2004). “Retail Management: A Strategic Approach”, Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Bitner M.J., (1992). “Service scapes: the impact of physical surroundings on customers and employees”, Journal of Marketing, 56, pp. 57– 71.

Block, L. G., & Morwitz, V. G. (1999). “Shopping lists as an external memory aid for grocery shopping: Influences on list writing and list fulfilment”. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 8(4), 343-375

Cant, M.C. & Hefer, Y. (2013). Visual Merchandising Displays’ Effect on Consumers: A Valuable Asset or an Unnecessary Burden for Apparel Retailers. The Journal of Applied Business Research.Vol. 28 (6), November/December, pp. 1217-1224.

Cant, M.C. and Hefer, Y. (2012). “Visual merchandising displays: Wasted efforts or Strategic Move? The dilemma faced by apparel retail stores”. The Journal of Applied Business Research, 28(6), pp. 1489-1496.

Cant, Michael; Heffer, Yolande (2014). "Visual merchandising displays effect - or not - on consumers: The predicament faced by apparel retailers." Journal of Business & Retail Management Research. 8 (2): 95–104.

Chang, H. J., Eckman, M., & Yan, R. N. (2011). Application of the Stimulus-Organism-Response model to the retail environment: the role of hedonic motivation in impulse buying behavior. The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 21(3), 233-249.

Clark, D. (2007). Visual Merchandising and Store Design, (date of retrieval 6.05.2017), on 15/05/2010.

Clover, V. T. (1950). “Relative importance of impulse-buying in retail stores”. The Journal of Marketing, 15(1), pp. 66-70.

Clynes, M. (1977). Sentics : The touch of emotions anchor. New York (U.S.A.).

Colborne, R. (1982). “Fundamentals of Merchandise Presentation”. The Times Publishing Company, Cincinnati, OH.

Colborne, R. (1996). “Visual merchandising the business of merchandise presentation”. Albany, New York: Delmar

Crawford and Melewar, (2003), The importance of impulse purchasing behavior in the international airport environment, Journal of Consumer Behavior 3, 85–98.

D.T. Kollat and R.P. Willett (1967), “Consumer impulse purchasing behaviour,” J. Marketing Research., vol. 4, Feb., pp.21-31.

D.W. Rook and M.P. Gardener (1993), “In the mood: Impulse buying's affective antecedents,” Res. Cons. Behavior., vol. 6, pp.1-28.

Dailey L.C, (2004). “Navigational Web Atmospherics: Explaining the Influence of Restrictive Navigation Cues”. Journal of Policy, 13(1), pp. 38-48.

Davies, J., & Tilley, N. (2004). “Interior Displays: Using the Management Services Approach in Retail Premises”. Managing Services. 10, 48 (7), pp. 10-13.

Dawes, C. (2008). Visual Merchandiser,, on 04/03/2010. Date of retrieval on 17.06.2017.

Deepak Tiwari, Supriti Dubey P.K. and Chopra, (2015). “Impact of Merchandising on Customer Satisfaction and thereby on Retailer's Sale a Study in Selected Malls Jabalpur and Gwalior City”. International Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, pp. 1-5.

Diamond, E. & Diamond, J. (2007), “The Visual Merchandising Concept in a Contemporary Environment”, 4th Edition, Prentice Hall.

Dittmar, H., Beattie, J., & Friese, S. (1995). “Gender identity and material symbols: Objects and decision considerations in impulse purchases”. Journal of Economic Psychology, 16(3), pp. 491-511.

Dmitry Galun (2012). Color Combinations in the Clothes Visual Merchandising. Retrieved from (date of retrieval 1.07.2017).

Donovan RJ, Rossiter JR, (1982). “Store atmosphere: an environmental psychology approach”. Journal of Retailing, 58, pp. 34 –57.

Ebster, C., & Garaus, M. (2011). “Store Layout and Visual Merchandising”. New-York: Business Expert Press.

Edwards, S. and Shackley, M. (1992). “Measuring the effectiveness of retail window display as an element of the marketing mix”. International Journal of Advertising, 11(3), pp. 193-202.

Espinoza, F., Liberali, G and D’Angelo, A.C.(2004), Testing the Influence of Retail Atmosphere on Store Choice Criteria, Perceived Value and Patronage Intentions, American Marketing Association, Conference Proceedings, Chicago, 15, pp. 120-26.

Feijo, F. R., & Botelho, D. (2012). “The Effect of Factors Related to Merchandising on Retail Sales”. Real Academia Espanola, 52(6). pp. 628-642.

Gerad, R.M. (1957). Differential effects of colored light on psychophysiological functions. Doctoral Dissertation. University of California.

Gorn, G. J. (1982). “The effects of music in advertising on choice behavior: a classical conditioning approach”. Journal of Marketing, 46, pp. 94-101.

Gorn, G. J., Chattopadhyay, A., Yi, T., & Dahl D. W., (1997). “Effects of Color as an Executional Cue in Advertising: They’re in the Shade”. Management Science, Vol. 43, No. 10, October, pp. 1387-1400.

Groeppel-Klein, A. (2005). Arousal and consumer in-store behavior. Brain research bulletin, 67(5), 428-437.

Ha,Y., Kwon,W. S.,& Lennon, J. S., (2007). “Online visual merchandising (VMD) of apparel web site”. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 11(4), pp. 477–493.

Han Y K, Morgan G A, Kotsiopulos A and Kang-Park J (1991), “Impulse buying behavior of apparel purchasers”, Clothing and Textile Research Journal, Vol. 9, pp. 15- 21.

Han Y.K. (1987), Impulse buying behavior of apparel purchasers. Unpublished master’s thesis, Colorado State University, Fort Collins.

Hausman, A. (2000). A multi-method investigation of consumer motivations in impulse buying behavior. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 17, 403-019.

Helmers, Karin F., Young, Simon N., & Pihl, Robert O. (1995). Assessment of measures of impulsivity in healthy male volunteers. Personality and Individual Differences, 19, pp. 927–935.

Hyun Hee; Jeon, Jung Ok; Sullivan, Pauline (2015). “How does visual merchandising in fashion retail stores affect consumers’ brand attitude and purchase intention?” The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research. Volume 25, 2015 - Issue 1, pp.87-104.

Iyer, E. S. (1989), unplanned purchasing: Knowledge of shopping environment and time pressure. Journal of Retailing, 65(1), pp. 40-57.

Jain, D. R. (2013). “Effect of Visual Merchandising of Apparels on Impulse Buying Behavior of Woman”. Indian Journal of Applied Research, pp. 310-312.

Jain, V., Sharma, A., Narwal, P. (2012). Impact of visual merchandising on consumer behavior towards women‟s apparel. International Journal of Research in Management, Issue 2, Vol.5, ISSN 2249-5908.

Jain, Vinamra, Sharma, Pradeep and Narwal, Pradeep. (2012). “Impact of Visual Merchandising on Consumer Behavior towards Women's Apparels”. International Journal of Research in Management. Issue 2. Vol. 5, pp.103-117.

Jarboe G R and McDaniel C D (1987), “ A profile of browsers in regional shopping malls”, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 15 (Spring), pp. 46- 53.

Kacen, J.J., and Lee J.A., 2002. “The influence of culture on consumer impulsive buying behavior”. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 12(2), pp.163-176.

Karbasivar A, Yarahmadi H. (2011). “Evaluating effective factors on consumer impulse buying behavior”. Asian Journal of Business Management Studies; 2(4):174–81.

Kellaris, J.J. and Altsech, M.B. (1992). “The experience of time a function of musical and gender of Listener”. Advances in Consumer Research, 19(1), pp. 725-729.

Kerfoot, S., Davies, B. and Ward, P. (2003). “Visual merchandising and the creation of discernible retail brands”. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 31(3), pp. 143-152.

Khandai, S., & Gulla, B. A. (2012). “Visual Merchandising as an anrecedent to impulse buying: An Indian Perspective”. International journal of business and Management Studies, 2pp. 67-277.

Kim J. (2003). “College student’s apparel impulse buying behavior in relation to visual merchandising”. (Master’s Thesis). Athens: University of Georgia; Unpublished.

Kim, J.S., 2013. The Study on the Effect that VM Design in store has on Purchasing Products, International Journal of Smart Home, 7(4).

Kouchekian M. and Gharibpoor M. (2012). “Investigating the relationship between visual merchandising and customer buying decision case study: Isfahan hypermarkets.” International Journal of Academic Research in Economics and Management Sciences, 1(2), pp. 268-279.

Law D., Wong C. and Yip J. (2010). “How does visual merchandising affect consumer affective response?” European Journal of Marketing, 46(1/2), pp. 112-133.

Lea-Greenwood, G. (1998). “Visual merchandising: A neglected area in UK fashion marketing?” International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 26(8), pp. 324-329.

Levi, E. and Weitz, S. (2009), Retailing Management, 7th ed. McGraw Hill, New York.

Levy, M. and Weitz, B.A. (2004). “Retail Management”. McGraw-Hill/Irwin, New York, NY.

Martin M. Pegler (2006). “Visual Merchandising and Display”. 5th Edition. Fairchild Books.

Mattila, A. S., & Wirtz, J. (2008). “The role of store environmental stimulation and social factors on impulse purchasing”. Journal of Services Marketing, 22(7), pp. 562-567.

Mauger, E. M. (1964). “Modern display techniques”. New York, NY: Fairchild.

Mazursky, K. and Jacoby, J. (1986). “Exploring the development of store images”. Journal of Retailing, 62(2), pp. 145-165.

Mehrabian & Russel, (1974), “An approach to environmental psychology”. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Mehta, N., & Chugan, Pawan K. (2012). Visual Merchandising: Impact on Consumer Behavior, (An Exploratory study of Apparel Segment in Ahmedabad) “Mapping the Global Future: Evolution through Innovation, and Excellence”, Global Business and Technology Association (GBATA), New York, USA, July, 2012, pp. 607-614.

Mehta, N., & Chugan, Pawan K. (2013), “The Impact of Visual Merchandising on Impulse Buying Behavior of Consumers: A Case from Central Mall of Ahmedabad India,” Universal Journal of Management 1(2), pp. 76-82.

Mills, K.H., Paul, J.E. and Moormann, K.B. (1995). “Applied Visual Merchandising”. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Omar, O.E. (1999). Retail Marketing. Pearson Education, Harlow. Park, N. and Farr, C.A. (2007). The effects of lighting on consumers’ emotions and behavioural intentions in a retail environment: A cross-cultural comparison. Journal of Interior Design, 33(1), pp. 17-32.

Opris M; Bratucu G, (2013) “Visual Merchandising Window Display”. Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braşov. Vol. 6 (55). No. 2. Series V: Economic Sciences, pp. 51-56.

Park, N. and Farr, C.A. (2007). “The effects of lighting on consumers’ emotions and behavioural intentions in a retail environment: A cross-cultural comparison.” Journal of Interior Design, 33(1), pp. 17-32.

Passewitz, G. Stoop, H. Zetocha, D., (1991), “Visual Merchandising: A Guide for Small Retailers”. Ames: Iowa State University.

Pegler, M.M. (1998). “Visual Merchandising and Display. Fairchild Publications”, New York, NY.

Piron, F. (1991). “Defining Impulse Purchasing”. Advances in Consumer Research, 18, pp. 509-514.

Rahma, A.N. and I.M.S. Purwanegara, 2013. Effect on Visual Merchandising in Fashion Store on Female Consumers’ Purchase Intention, in the Proceedings of World Business and Social Science Research Conference, 24-25 October, 2013, Bangkok, Thailand, 1-13.

Rea, M.S. (1993). Lighting Handbook Reference and Application. 8th Edition. New York: Illuminating Engineering Society of North America.

Ridmi, G., Sashini, G., and H.A.K.N.S., S., 2011. The Impact of Selected Visual Merchandising Techniques on Patronage Intentions in Supermarkets (Study Based on Colombo District). In: 2nd International Conference on Business and Economic Research (2nd ICBER 2011), Langkawi Kedah, Malaysia, 14-16 March 2011, pp.1130-1154.

Roberts, J.A., & Jones, E. (2001). Money attitudes, credit card use, and compulsive buying among American college students, Journal of Consumer Affairs, 35 (2), 213-240.

Rook D W (1987), “The buying impulse”, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 14, pp. 189-99.

Rook, D.W. & Hoch, S.J. (1985), “Consuming impulses”, Advances in Consumer Research, 12, pp. 23-7.

S. J. Hoch and G. F. Loewenstein, (1991). “Time-inconsistent Preferences and Consumer Self-control,” Journal of Consumer Research, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 492-507.

S. Meenakumari (2013). Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Management Review, ISSN 2319-2836. Vol.2 (9), September. Online available at Indian research

Saini, C. (2015). “Visual Merchandising and Impulse Buying Behavior: A Case of Retail Industry”. International Journal of Advance Research in Science & Engineering, Vol.4, Issue: 2, pp. 621-627.

Schneider, F. Kimbrell, G. Woloszyk, C. (2009), “Marketing Essentials”, Woodland Hills: The McGrawHill Companies.

Schneider, S.K. (1995), Vital Mummies: Performance Design for the Show-Window Mannequin, New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press.

Sherman E, Mathur A, Smith R.B., (1997). “Store environment and consumer purchase behavior: mediating role of consumer emotions”. Psychological Marketing, 14, pp. 361– 78.

Shun Yin Lam (2001),"The Effects of Store Environment on Shopping Behaviors: a Critical Review", in NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 28, eds. Mary C. Gilly and Joan Meyers-Levy, Valdosta, GA: Association for Consumer Research, pp. 90-197.

Silvera, D. H., Lavack, A. M., & Kropp, F. (2008). Impulse buying: The role of affect, social influence and wellbeing. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 25(1), 23-33.

Solomon, M. R & Rabolt, N. J (2004), Consumer Behaviour in Fashion, Pearson Education, Inc., New Jersey

Stern H (1962), “The significance of impulse buying today”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 26 (April), pp. 59-63.

Swati Bhalla, Anurag s. (2010). Visual Merchandising, Tata McGraw publications. New Delhi, India.

Tendai M, Crispen C. (2009). “In-store shopping environment and impulse buying”. African Journal Market Management; 1(4):pp. 102–08.

Weinberg, Peter, & Gottwald, Wolfgang. (1982). Impulsive consumer buying as a result of emotions. Journal of Business Research, 10, pp. 43–57.

Wilson, Glenn D. (1966). Arousal properties of red versus green. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 23 (3): 947-949.

Yalch, R. and Spangenberg, E. (1993). “Using store music for retail zoning: A field experiment”. Advances in Consumer Research, 20, pp. 632-636.

Youn S and Faber R J (2000), “Impulse buying: Its relation to personality traits and cues”, Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 27, pp. 179-186.

Zhang, Y. and Wang, F. (2010).The Relationship between Impulse Buying, Negative Evaluations and Customer Loyalty. ORIENT ACADEMIC FORUM

Zhou, L., & Wong, A. (2004). Consumer impulse buying and in-store stimuli in Chinese supermarkets. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 16(2).


  • There are currently no refbacks.




About IJSBAR | Privacy PolicyTerms & Conditions | Contact Us | DisclaimerFAQs 

IJSBAR is published by (GSSRR).