The Role of FSH, LH, Estradiol and Progesterone Hormone on Estrus Cycle of Female Rats

Tetty Rina Aritonang, Sri Rahayu, Lenny Irmawaty Sirait, Marni Br Karo, Tigor Peniel Simanjuntak, Rosdiana Natzir, Andi Wardihan Sinrang, Muh Nasrum Massi, Mochammad Hatta, Emma Kamelia


The estrous cycle is a recurrent process that describes changes in reproductive hormone levels caused by ovarian activity under the influence of pituitary hormones. Estrous cycles are characterized by morphological changes in ovaries, the uterus and the vaginal cells. The length of the estrous cycle and the frequency of the reproductive cycle in each organism are different. In mice, lasts for about 4-5 days.

The estrus cycle consists of four phases, namely proestrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus. During this period, the vaginal mucosa undergoes tremendous structural changes and is affected by hormones such as FSH (stimulates the growth and development of ovarian follicles), LH (regulates estrogen and progesterone hormones), progesterone dan estradiol. Previous studies showed that in proestrus phase serum estradiol concentrations higher than all other estrus stage (p-value <0.001). FSH concentrations tend to be higher during proestrus. During estrus, serum estradiol concentrations were significantly lower than proestrus (p-value < 0.001) higher than metestrus (p-value = 0.005). Admission to metestrus coincides with the continuous rise in levels of the progesterone hormone. Estrus, 17-?-estradiol decreased and peak prolactin levels. The Serum estradiol increased from metestrus through proestrus (ANOVA p-value <0.001). During metestrus, serum estradiol concentration was significantly lower than proestrus (p-value <0.001), estrus (p-value = 0.005) and diestrus (p-value = 0.034), LH concentrations tend to be higher during proestrus and metestrus. The concentration of serum LH and FSH did not differ statistically across the whole of the estrous cycle (Kruskal-Wallis test p-value = 0.333 and 0.643, respectively). Serum estradiol concentrations were lower than proestrus (p-value < 0.001) and higher than metestrus (p-value = 0.034). In this article will be discussed explanation of each hormone and its effect to the estrus cycle, especially changes in vaginal cells


FSH; LH; Estradiol; Progesterone; Estrus Cycle; vaginal cells.

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