Study of Hemoglobin and Ferritin Profile as Indicators in Children Hematology of 12-15 Years Provided Local Rice Fortification

Sultan Akbar Toruntju, Aminuddin Syam, Sukri Palutturi, Mansyur Arif, Veni Hadju, Abdul Razak Thaha


Basic Health Research (Riskesdas) reported that in 2007 the prevalence of anemia was 12.8%, of which 70.1% was Iron Deficiency Anemia, increased to 21.7% in 20013. The purpose of this study was to describe the profile of hemoglobin and ferritin as an indicator of hematology at students aged 12-15 years who consume rice fortification. This study design was Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) double-blind, on children students, conducted from May 2015 through March 2016.

The total sample consisted of 64 students: 32 cases and 32 controls aged 12-15 years, both samples and controls were anemic. Samples were given intervention by consuming rice fortification for 6 months, rice fortified with 6 micronutrients (Fe, Zn, vitamin B1, vitamin B3, folic acid and vitamin B12. The intervention was done by providing 200 grams of rice in the morning and evening for 6 months. Blood sampling was performed to monitor the levels of hemoglobin (Hb), Ferritin for 3 times that at this stage of the baseline, midline and endline. Descriptive analysis was conducted to asses determinant levels of hemoglobin and ferritin levels of the age. The result shows thatBaseline phase: The intervention group gained an average of 11.80 g Hb/dL, ferritin 38.50 ug/L and the control group Hb 11.90 g/dL, ferritin 38.60 ug/L. Midline stage: The intervention group gained an average of 11.78 cases Hb g /dL, ferritin 78.28 ug/L, whereas the control Hb 12.08 g/dL, ferritin 54.56 ug/L.Endline stage: The intervention group gained an average of 12.21 g Hb/dL, ferritin 28.56 ug/L and the control group Hb of 12.6 g/dL, ferritin 39.37 ug/L.There is an increase in average levels of hemoglobin from baseline to the intervention group midline to the endline, particularly in the age group of 12-12 years and 14-14 years 11 months. There is an increase in the average levels of ferritin from baseline to the intervention group but decreased in the midline endline.


Rice fortification; micronutrients; Hemoglobin and Ferriti.

Full Text:



WHO, Worldwide Prevalence of Anaemia 1993-2005: Who Global Database On Anaemia. 2008, World Health Organization: Geneva.

Kemenkes RI, Riset Kesehatan Dasar tahun 2007. 2007, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan, Kementerian Kesehatan RI: Jakarta.

Dinkes Kab. Karawang, Profil Kesehatan Kabupaten Karawang. 2008, Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Karawang: Karawang.

Ngui, R., et al., Association between anaemia, iron deficiency anaemia, neglected parasitic infections and socioeconomic factors in rural children of West Malaysia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2012. 6(3): p. e1550.

Pasricha, S.-R., et al., Control of iron deficiency anemia in low-and middle-income countries. Blood, 2013. 121(14): p. 2607-2617.

WHO, Global Health Risks: Mortality and Burden of Disease Attributable to Selected Major Risks. 2009, World Health Organization: Geneva.

Ekiz, C., et al., The effect of iron deficiency anemia on the function of the immune system. The Hematology Journal, 2005. 5(7): p. 579-583.

Macdougall, L.G., et al., The immune response in iron-deficient children: Impaired cellular defense mechanisms with altered humoral components. The Journal of pediatrics, 1975. 86(6): p. 833-843.

Chwang, L., A. Soemantri, and E. Pollitt, Iron supplementation and physical growth of rural Indonesian children. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 1988. 47(3): p. 496-501.

Michaelsen, K., N.M. Thanh, and G. Samuelson, A longitudinal study of iron status in healthy Danish infants: effects of early iron status, growth velocity and dietary factors. Acta Paediatrica, 1995. 84(9): p. 1035-1044.

Igbal, K., et al., Effect of Iron Deficiency Anemia on Intellectual Performance of Primary School Children in Islamabad, Pakistan. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2015. 14(2): p. 287-291.

Mesfin, F., Y. Berhane, and A. Worku, Anemia among primary school children in Eastern Ethiopia. PloS one, 2015. 10(4): p. e0123615.

Ahmed, F., et al., Long-term intermittent multiple micronutrient supplementation enhances hemoglobin and micronutrient status more than iron+ folic acid supplementation in Bangladeshi rural adolescent girls with nutritional anemia. The Journal of nutrition, 2010. 140(10): p. 1879-1886.

Hyder, S.Z., et al., A multiple-micronutrient-fortified beverage affects hemoglobin, iron, and vitamin A status and growth in adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh. The Journal of nutrition, 2007. 137(9): p. 2147-2153.

Losen Adnyan, I.W., et al., Hubungan Feritin Serum dengan Kadar Il-2 Pada Penderita Anemia Defisiensi Besi. Journal of Internal Medicine, 2007. 8(1).

Hussain, S.Z., B. Singh, and A. Rather, Efficacy of Micronutrient fortified Extruded Rice in Improving the Iron and Vitamin A status in Indian Schoolchildren. International Journal of Agriculture and Food Science Technology, 2014. 3(3): p. 227-238.

Gera, T., H.S. Sachdev, and E. Boy, Effect of iron-fortified foods on hematologic and biological outcomes: systematic review of randomized controlled trials. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 2012. 96(2): p. 309-324.

Muthayya, S., et al., Iron fortification of whole wheat flour reduces iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia and increases body iron stores in Indian school-aged children. The Journal of nutrition, 2012. 142(11): p. 1997-2003.

KFI Indonesia. Makanan yang Dapat Difortifikasi. 2011 [cited 2011 12 Maret]; Available from:

Nogueira Arcanjo, F., P. Santos, and S. Segall, Ferric pyrophosphate fortified rice given once weekly does not increase hemoglobin levels in preschoolers. J Rice Res, 2013. 1(2): p. 1-6.

Allen, L.H., et al., Lack of hemoglobin response to iron supplementation in anemic Mexican preschoolers with multiple micronutrient deficiencies. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 2000. 71(6): p. 1485-1494.

Soliman, A.T., V.D. Sanctis, and S. Kalra2, Anemia and Growth. Anemia and growth. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 2014. 18: p. S1S5.

Pinkaew, S., et al., Triple-fortified rice containing vitamin A reduced marginal vitamin A deficiency and increased vitamin A liver stores in school-aged Thai children. The Journal of nutrition, 2014. 144(4): p. 519-524.

Pinkaew, S., et al., Extruded rice grains fortified with zinc, iron, and vitamin A increase zinc status of Thai school children when incorporated into a school lunch program. The Journal of nutrition, 2013. 143(3): p. 362-368.

Angeles-Agdeppa, et al., Efficacy of iron-fortified rice in reducing anemia among schoolchildren in the Philippines. International journal for vitamin and nutrition research, 2008. 78(2): p. 74-86.

WHO, UNICEF, and UNU, Iron Deficiency Anaemia: Assessment, Prevention And Control, a Guide For Programme Managers. 2001, World Health Organization: Genewa.

Domellf, M., et al., The diagnostic criteria for iron deficiency in infants should be reevaluated. The Journal of nutrition, 2002. 132(12): p. 3680-3686.

Gibson, R.S., Principles of Nutritional Assessment. 2005, New York: Oxford University Press.

Sherwood, L.L., Fisiologi Manusia dari Sel ke Sistem. 2001, Jakarta: ECG.

Marieb, E.N. and K. Hoehn, Human Anatomy & Physiology. 2007, San Fransisco: Pearson Education.

Guyton, A.C. and J.E. Hall, Textbook of Medical Physiology. 1997, EGC: Jakarta.

Ahmed, F., et al., Efficacy of twice-weekly multiple micronutrient supplementation for improving the hemoglobin and micronutrient status of anemic adolescent schoolgirls in Bangladesh. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 2005. 82(4): p. 829-835.


  • There are currently no refbacks.





About IJSBAR | Privacy PolicyTerms & Conditions | Contact Us | DisclaimerFAQs 

IJSBAR is published by (GSSRR).