The Relationship between VDR Gene mRNA Expression and Incidence of Stillbirth

Budy Utomo, Andi Zulkifli Abdullah, Ansariadi Ansariadi, Sukri Palutturi, Mohammad Hatta, Andi Nilawati Usman


More than 2.65 million stillbirths occur each year worldwide, or over 7,300 stillbirths occur every day. Vitamin D has an important role during pregnancy, such as facilitating transport some nutrients through the placenta, including calcium metabolism and modulation of the immune response as well asit is an essential nutritional factor for the health of the mother during pregnancy and the fetus. The study aims to elucidate the relationship between VDR genemRNA expression andincidence of stillbirth. This study used a case-control design. Sample size of this study was68 respondents that consistedof 34 respondents for the control group and 34 respondents for the case group with a ratio of 1:1. The sampling method referred to the formula sample size determination in health studies. Odds ratio was determined by analyzing several previous studies. The case group comprised pregnant mothers who experienced stillbirth, whereas, the control group included respondents who delivered live births and had fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were analyzed using chi-square formula (? = 0.05) with the determination of odds ratio (OR).

The study indicated that mean value ofVDR gene mRNA expression was higher in the group of respondents who did not experience stillbirth. Results of the ANOVA test showed that there wasstatistically significant difference of VDR gene mRNA expression in the two groups (p = 0.000). Low VDR gene mRNA expression caused higher risk of stillbirth in the case group (79.4%) than the control group (41.2%), whereas, high VDR gene mRNA expression caused lower risk of stillbirth in the control group (58.8%) than the case group (20.6%).Results of the data analysis showed that the value of chi-square test was p = 0.003 (p <0.05), and hence, there was statistically significant correlation between VDR gene expression mRNA and incidence of stillbirth. Results of the statistical analysis revealed that the value of OR was 5.51 (95% CI = 1.87 to 16.15). It was concluded that respondents with low VDR gene mRNA expression (<mean value) had 5.5 times more likely had incidence of stillbirth than those with high VDR gene expression mRNA (? mean value).


Stillbirth; Vitamin D Receptor Gene; VDR Gene mRNA expression.

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