Analysing Policy Formulation for Coal Mining Activities within State Forest Zone in Indonesia: A case study of East Kalimantan Province

Subarudi Subarudi, Hariadi Kartodihardjo, Sudarsono Soedomo, Hadiyanto Sapardi, Muhammad Zahrul Muttaqin

Abstract


The formulation of policies regarding coal-mining activities in state forest zone has usually been complicated by the natures of coalmine, actors involved in the coal mining industries, and the goals to achieve sustainable resource management. This study uses Institutional analysis and developments (IAD) framework and descriptive analysis to explore factors affecting the policy formulation. East Kalimantan was selected to be the study site due to its abundant coal deposits and numbers of mining business license (IUP) issued by local governments. The study indicated that coalmines within state forest zone could be characterised as a common pool resource (CPR) where many participants involved in the utilisation of the resource due to its simple technological requirements, although it could be categorised as a capital-intensive activity. Actors involved in the coal-mining activities have colluded in conducting the license process; therefore all mining licensing proposals have always been approved. None of them has been rejected. The practices of corruption, collusion and nepotism, known as KKN, happen in the utilisation of coal mines within state forest zone in East Kalimantan was caused by the biophysical characteristic of coalmines, gaps or weaknesses of the implementation of laws/regulations, and poor monitoring system carried out by civil societies.


Keywords


Mining in state forest zone; institutional analysis; and corruption, collusion and nepotism; political economy.

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References


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