Biocidal and Phytochemical Analysis of Leaf Extracts of Annona muricata (Linn.)

Festus Osho Taiwo, Olaoluwa - Oyedeji, Olukayode Solomon Ajayi, Femi - Ayinde, Matthew - Oziegbe, Charlotte Olusanu Oseghare

Abstract


Annona muricata is used traditionally in the treatment of several human ailments. In the present study, the biocidal activities of A. muricata leaf extracts were evaluated against 10 clinical strains of bacteria and 6 fungal strains. The antimicrobial activity was determined by the disc diffusion method. The ethyl acetate fraction of the leaf extract produced the greatest antibacterial activity (mean zones of inhibition range 27.6 1.2 to 31.3 1.5 mm) followed by the n-butanol fraction (mean zones of inhibition range 21.0 1.7 to 30.3 1.5 mm). However, the n-butanol fraction exhibited the greatest antifungal effect.

Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the two best fractions were determined by the broth microdilution method. The MIC values for the ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions ranged from 0.0313 to 0.0125 g/ml and 0.0625 to 0.125 g/ml respectively.

The ethyl acetate fraction also exhibited remarkable bactericidal activity against Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus subtilis by achieving complete eradication (100% killing rate) of these organisms after 180 and 210 min, respectively. Phytochemical compounds detected in the plant extracts were alkaloids, anthraquinones, saponnins, flavonoids, tannins, reducing sugars, cardiac glycosides, carbohydrate (ketonic sugar) and phlobatannins. The results of this study indicate that A. muricata leaf extracts could be effectively used against diseases caused by selected human pathogens. It can therefore be further assessed for discovery of bioactive compounds with potential usefulness in antiinfective therapy.


Keywords


Annona muricata; Annonaceae; Biocidal activity; Ethnobotanical; Phytochemical analysis; Antibacterial; Antifungal.

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