Comparative Study of Some Natural and Artificial Food Coloring Agents on Hyperactivity, Learning and Memory Performance in Weanling Rats

Suzan F. El-Sisi, Salwa kamal El-nabarawy, Omyma k. Radwan, Areeg M. Abdel-razek

Abstract


Color additives are used in a wide variety of foods, Food azo-colours tartrazine (Tar) is one of the most widely used artificial foods, drugs and cosmetic yellow dyes, its E number is E102 while Curcumin (Cur, an active ingredient of turmeric) is brightly yellow colored which routinely used as spice, food preservative and coloring material in different parts of the world; its E number is E100. The present study aimed to Compare between artificial yellow coloring additive Tar and natural one Cur (has the same color) on hyperactivity, learning and memory and the possibility of using Cur instead of Tar or at least in combined with Tar to protect against Tar behavioral disorder in weanling rats. To characterized biochemical and behavioral parameters the study was assessed the effect of Tar (1%, 3%) alone or in combination with Cur (200 mg/kg/b.wt) for 8 weeks on Open field test to assess the potential hyperactivity and Morris water maze test to assess learning and memory. Furthermore, biomarkers of oxidative stress malondialdhyde (MDA, end product of lipid peroxides), nitric oxides (NO, as nitrite to nitrate ratio), GSH (reduced glutathione), and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) in addition to some neurotransmitter, monoamines [dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT)] were also measured in three different brain areas (frontal cortex, Striatum and hippocampus).

These brain regions are important because they are involved in important behavioral functions, such as emotion, motivation, learning and memory. The results indicated that Tar extract significantly enhanced active behavioral response. Tar-treated rats showed hyperactivity in open field test presented by increasing horizontal locomotion as well as depletion in learning and memory by increased the escape latency in Morris water maze test and decreased the retention latency in probe test. Tar alone disturb oxidative stress marker by causing significant increase in serum NO and serum and tissue MDA and GSSG while it caused significant decrease in serum and tissue GSH as well as it inhibited neurotransmitters releases especially in striatum and hippocampus area. While combined treatment of Cur significantly ameliorated all the behavioral and biochemical alterations in serum and different brain regions of Tar-treated weanling rats. This study provides scientific evidence that there is a relationship between Tar and inflection of hyperactivity and depletion in learning and memory in weanling rats while coadministration of Cur attenuates the potential hazards of Tar.


Keywords


color additives; Tartrazine; Curcumin; hyperactivity; learning and memory; oxidative stress; monoamines.

Full Text:

PDF

References


B.B. Aggarwal, and B. Sung, ''Pharmacological basis for the role of curcumin in chronic diseases: an age-old spice with modern targets''. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, vol 30(2) p.p. 8594, 2009.

B.J. Kaplan, ''Food additives and behavior: first genetic insights''. Am J Psychiatry, vol. 167(9), p.p.1023-5, 2010.

C. Buhrmann, A. Mobasheri, F. Busch, C. Aldinger, R. Stahlmann, A. Montaseri and Shakibaei, M. ''Cur modulates nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB)-mediated inflammation in human tenocytes in vitro: role of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. J Biol Chem, vol. 12; 286(32), p.p. 28556-66, 2011.

C.V. Preuss, T.C. Wood, C.L. Szumlanski, R.B. Raftogianis, D.M. Otterness, B. Girard and et al ''Human histamine N methyltransferase pharmacogenetics: common genetic polymorphisms that alter activity''. Mol Pharmacol, vol. 53, p.p. 708-717, 1998.

D. Bender ''Non-nutritional uses of vitamin B6''. Br J Nutr, vol. 81, p.p.7-20, 1999.

D. McCann, A. Barrett, A. Cooper, D. Crumpler, L. Dalen, K. Grimshaw and et al ''Food additives and hyperactive behavior in 3-year-old and 8/9-year-old children in the community: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial''. Lancet, vol. 370(9598), p.p. 1560-7, 2007.

D.J. Stein, J. Fan, J. Fossella, and V.A. Russell ''Inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity: psychobiological and evolutionary underpinnings of ADHD''. CNS Spectr, vol. 12(3), p.p. 193-6, 2007.

D. Schab, and N. Trinh ''Do artificial food colours promote hyperactivity in children with hyperactive syndromes? A meta analysis of double-blind placebo-controlled trials''. J Dev Behav Pediatr, vol. 25, p.p. 423-434, 2004.

E. Esposito ''Serotonin-dopamine interaction as a focus of novel antidepressant drugs''. Curr Drug Targets, vol 7(2), p.p. 177-85, 2006.

E. Molina-Jijn, E. Tapia, C. Zazueta, M.d. El Hafidi, Z. L Zatarain-Barrn, R. Hernndez-Pando and et al '' Cur prevents Cr (VI)-induced renal oxidant damage by a mitochondrial pathway''. Free Radical Biology & Medicine, vol. 51, p.p. 15431557, 2011.

E.O. Koylu, M. Kanit, D. Taskiran, T. Dagci, B. Balkan, and S. Pogun ''Effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibition on spatial discrimination learning and central DA2 and mACh receptors. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, vol. 81(1), p.p. 32-40, 2005.

F. Guangqin, F. Chang, L. Yu, W. Chunhong, Y. Ji, L. Wei, F. Jiangao, S. Xianglin and B. Yongyi '' Selection of Nutrients for Prevention or Amelioration of Lead-Induced Learning and Memory Impairment in Rats''. Ann. Hyg, vol. 53, p.p. 341-351, 2009.

G.B. Fox,; T.A. Esbenshade, J.B. Pan, R.J. Radek, K.M. Krueger, B.B. Yao and et al ''Pharmacological properties of ABT-239 [4-(2-{2-[(2R)-2-Methyl-pyrrolidinyl]ethyl}-benzofuran-5-yl) benzonitrile]: II. Neurophysiological characterization and broad preclinical efficacy in cognition and schizophrenia of a potent and selective histamine H3 receptor antagonist''. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, vol.313 (1), p.p.176-90, 2005.

I.L. Moutinho, L.C. Bertges, and R.V. Assis, ''Prolonged use of the food dye Tar (FD & C yellow no.5) and its effects on the gastric mucosa of Wistar rats''. Braz J Biol, vol. 67(1), p.p.141-5, 2007.

I.M. Mourad, and N.A. Noor ''Aspartame (a widely used artificial sweetener) and oxidative stress in the rat cerebral cortex''. Int. J. Pharm. Biomed. Sci, vol.2, p.p. 410, 2011.

I. Stevanovic, A.Jelenkovi?, I.Stevanovi?, D.Pavlovi?, G. Bjelakovi?, and T. Jevtovi?-Stoimenov ''Spermidine influence on the nitric oxide synthase and arginase activity relationship during experimentally induced seizures''. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol, vol. 21(2), p.p.169-85, 2010.

J. Harro, R. Hidkind, M. Harro, A.R. Modiri, P.G. Gillberg, R. Phkla and et al (): Chronic mild unpredictable stress after noradrenergic denervation: attenuation of behavioral and biochemical effects of DSP-4 treatment. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol, vol.10 (1), p.p. 5-16, 1999.

J. Mehla, K. H. Reeta, P. Gupta, and Y. K. Gupta '' Protective effect of Cur against seizures and cognitive impairment in a pentylenetetrazole-kindled epileptic rat model''. Life Sci, vol. 87(19-22), p.p. 596-603, 2010.

J. Moreno, M. Campos, C. Lara, G. Lopez, L. Pavon, M. Hernadez, and et al '' Tryptophan and serotonin in blood and platelets of depressed patients: effect of an antidepressant treatment''. Salud Mental, vol. 29(4), p.p. 1-8, 2007.

J.F. Pflieger, F. Clarac, and L. Vinay ''Postural modifications and neuronal excitability changes induced by short-term serotonin depletion during neonatal development in the rat''. J. Neurosci., vol. 22, p.p. 51085117, 2002.

J. Stevenson, E. Sonuga-Barke, D. McCann, K. Grimshaw, K.M. Parker, M.J. Rose-Zerilli, J.W. Holloway and J. O. Warner ''The role of histamine degradation gene polymorphisms in moderating the effects of food additives on children's ADHD symptoms''. Am J Psychiatry, vol. 167(9), p.p.1108-15, 2010.

J. Jayatilleke, and S. Shaw ''A high performance liquid chromatographic assay for reduced and oxidized glutathione in biological samples''. Anal. Biochem, vol. 214(2), p.p. 452-457, 1993.

K.A. Amin, H. Abdel Hameid, and A.H. Abd Elsttar ''Effect of food azo dyes Tar and carmoisine on biochemical parameters related to renal, hepatic function and oxidative stress biomarkers in young male rats'' Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 48, p.p. 2994-2999, 2010.

K.D. Alex, and E.A. Pehek, ''Pharmacologic mechanisms of serotonergic regulation of dopamine neurotransmission'' Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol.113 (2), p.p. 296320, 2007.

K.M. Boje ''Nitric oxide neurotoxicity in neuron-degenerative diseases''. Front Bio sci, vol. 1; 9, p.p. 763-76, 2004.

L. N. Papadoyannis, V. F. Samanidou, and Ch. C. Nitsos '' Simultaneous determination of nitrite and nitrate in drinking water and human serum by high performance anion-exchange chromatography and UV detection''. J. Liq. Chrom. Rel. Technol, vol. 22(13), p.p. 2023 2041, 1999.

L. Salomon, C. Lanteri, J. Glowinski, and J. Tassin ''Behavioral sensitization to amphetamine results from an uncoupling between noradrenergic and serotonergic neurons''. Proc Natl Acad Sci.USA, vol. 103, p.p. 7476-7481, 2006.

M. Bishnoi, K. Chopra, and S.K. Kulkarni ''Protective effect of Cur, the active principle of turmeric (Curcuma longa) in haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia and associated behavioral, biochemical and neurochemical changes in rat brain''. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, vol. 88(4), p.p.511-22, 2008

M. Karatep: Simulatenous determination of ascorbic acid and free malondialdehyde in human serum by HPLC-UV. Chromatographic Line, vol. 12, p.p.362-365, 2004.

M. Millan '' The neurobiology and control of anxious states''. Prog Neurobiol, vol. 70, p.p. 83-244, 2003.

M.M. Kamel and M.H. El-lethey '' The Potential Health Hazard of Tar and Levels of Hyperactivity, Anxiety-Like Symptoms, Depression and Anti-social behavior in Rats''. Journal of American Science, vol.7 (6), p.p. 1211-1218, 2011.

M.O Elhkim, F. Hraud, N.Bemrah, F. Gauchard, T. Lorino, C. Lambr, et al ''New considerations regarding the risk assessment on Tar An update toxicological assessment, intolerance reactions and maximum theoretical daily intake in France''. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol, vol 47(3), p.p.308-16, 2007.

N. Mehedi, S. Ainad-Tabet, N. Mokrane, S. Addou, C. Zaoui, O. Kheroua, and I. Saidi ''Reproductive toxicology of Tar (FD and C Yellow No. 5) in Swiss albino mice''. Am J Pharmacol Toxicol, vol. 4(4), p.p.130-135, 2009.

P. Basnet, and N. Skalko-Basnet '' Cur: an anti-inflammatory molecule from a curry spice on the path to cancer treatment'' Molecules, vol. 16(6), p.p. 4567-98, 2011.

P. Dayan, and Q. J. Huys, '' Serotonin, inhibition, and negative mood''. PLoS Comput Biol, vol.4(2):e4, 2008

P. K. Shukla, V. K. Khanna, M.Y. Khan, and R.C. Srimal ''Protective effect of Curcumin against lead neurotoxicity in rat''. Hum Exp Toxicol, vol. 22, p.p. 653-658, 2003.

P. Pagel, J. Blome, and H. U. Wolf ''High-performance liquid chromatographic separation and measurement of various biogenic compounds possibly involved in the pathomechanism of Parkinsons disease''. Journal of Chromatography, xztrdfsc 746: 297-304, 2000.

P.A. Gargiulo, M.B. Viana, F.G. Graeff, M.A. Silva, and C. Tomaz ''Effects of anxiety and memory of systemic and intra-amygdala injection of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist BRL 46470A''. Neuropsychobiology, vol.33(4), p.p. 189-95, 1996.

P. Sethi, A.Jyoti, E.Hussain and D.Sharma ''Curcumin attenuates aluminium-induced functional neurotoxicity in rats. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, vol. 93, p.p. 3139, 2009.

R.S. Yadav, M.L. Sankhwar, R.K. Shukla, R. Chandra, A.B. Pant, F. Islam, and V.K. Khanna ''Attenuation of arsenic neurotoxicity by Cur in rats''. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, Vol. 240(3), p.p. 367-76, 2009.

S. Daniel, J.L. Limson, A. Dairam, G.M. Watkins, and S. Daya. ''Through metal binding, Cur protects against lead- and cadmium-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenates and against lead-induced tissue damage in rat brain''. J Inorg Biochem, vol. 98(2), p.p. 266-75, 2004.

S. Kulkarni, A. Dhir, and K.K. Akula ''Potentials of Cur as an antidepressant''. Scientific World Journal, vol. 9, p.p. 1233-41, 2009.

S. Overmeyer, and E. Taylor '' Annotation: principles of treatment for hyperkinetic disorders: practice approaches for the UK''. J Child Psychol Psychiatry, vol. 40, p.p. 1147-1157, 1999.

S. Russo, I. Kema, M. Fokkema, and J. Boon '' Tryptophan as a link between psychopathology and somatic states''. Psychosom Med, vol. 65, p.p. 665-671, 2003.

S.J. Flora, K. Bhatt, and A. Mehta '' Arsenic moiety in gallium arsenide is responsible for neuronal apoptosis and behavioral alterations in rats''. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, vol. 240(2), p.p.236-44, 2009.

T. Tanaka, O. Takahashi, S. Oishi, and A. Ogata ''Effects of Tar on exploratory behavior in a three-gneration toxicity study in mice''. Reproductive Toxicology, vol. 26(2), p.p.156163, 2008.

T. Tanaka ''Reproductive and neurobehavioral toxicity study of Tar administered to mice in the diet''. Food Chem Toxicol, vol. 44(2), p.p. 179-187, 2006.

V. A. Gomes, A. Casella-Filho, A.C. Chagas, and J.E. Tanus-Santos '' Enhanced concentrations of relevant markers of nitric oxide formation after exercise training in patients with metabolic syndrome''. Nitric Oxide. Vol. 19(4), p.p. 345-50, 2008.

V. Butterweck, T. Bckers, B. Korte, W. Wittkowski, and H. Winterhoff, ''Long-term effects of St. John's wort and hypericin on monoamine levels in rat hypothalamus and hippocampus''. Brain Res, vol. 930(1-2), p.p. 21-9, 2002.

V. P. Menon and A. R. Sudheer ''antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Cur. The molecular targets and therapeutic uses of Cur in health and disease''. Advances in experimental medicine and biology. Vol. 595, p.p. 105-125, 2007.

Y. Gao, C. Li, J. Shen, H. Yin, X. An, and H. Jin'' Effect of Food Azo Dye Tar on Learning and Memory Functions in Mice and Rats, and the Possible Mechanisms Involved''. Journal of Food Science, vol. 76, p.p. T125T129, 2011.

Y. Jiao, J. Wilkinson, P. E. Christine, J. L. Buss, W. Wang, R. Planalp, and et al ''Iron chelation in the biological activity of Cur''. Free Radic Biol Med, vol. 40(7), p.p.1152-60, 2006.

Y. Jiao, J. Wilkinson, X. Di, W. Wang, H. Hatcher, N.D. Kock, and et al ''Cur, a cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent, is a biologically active iron chelator''. Blood. 113(2):462-9, 2009


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


 

 
  
 

 

  


About IJSBAR | Privacy PolicyTerms & Conditions | Contact Us | DisclaimerFAQs 

IJSBAR is published by (GSSRR).